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Updated on 2022-05-24 GMT+08:00

Reviewing and Modifying a Table Definition

In a distributed framework, data is distributed on DNs. Data on one or more DNs is stored on a physical storage device. To properly define a table, you must:

  1. Evenly distribute data on each DN to avoid the available capacity decrease of a cluster caused by insufficient storage space of the storage device associated with a DN. Specifically, select a proper distribution key to avoid data skew.
  2. Evenly assign table scanning tasks on each DN to avoid that a DN is overloaded by the table scanning tasks. Specifically, do not select columns in the equivalent filter of a base table as the distribution key.
  3. Reduce the data volume scanned by using the partition pruning mechanism.
  4. Avoid the use of random I/O by using clustering or partial clustering.
  5. Avoid data shuffle to reduce the network pressure by selecting the join-condition column or group by column as the distribution column.

The distribution column is the core for defining a table. The following figure shows the procedure of defining a table. The table definition is created during the database design and is reviewed and modified during the SQL statement optimization.

Figure 1 Procedure of defining a table