更新时间:2022-05-11 GMT+08:00
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使用证书进行安全认证

操作场景

内置MQTT broker默认开启端口进行TLS(Transport Layer Security)安全认证,客户端必须带上证书才能访问MQTT broker。

终端设备和应用可以通过在对应节点详情页创建的证书进行安全认证。

在节点组中部署的应用可能调度到节点组内任意节点,终端设备可能访问节点组内任意节点,从边缘节点处创建的证书不能满足应用访问节点MQTT broker的需要,所以需要使用节点组证书。节点组证书创建方法请参见节点组证书

约束与限制

  • 证书与边缘节点绑定,在一个边缘节点下申请的证书只能用来访问该边缘节点的MQTT broker,如果访问其他边缘节点的MQTT broker,会导致认证失败。
  • 一个边缘节点最多只能申请10份证书。
  • 证书的有效期为5年。
  • MQTT使用限制
    表1 MQTT使用限制

    描述

    限制

    支持的MQTT协议版本

    3.1.1

    与标准MQTT协议的区别

    • 支持QoS 0
    • 支持Topic自定义
    • 不支持QoS 1和QoS 2
    • 不支持will、retain msg

    MQTTS支持的安全等级

    采用TCP通道基础 + TLS协议(TLSV1.2 版本)

申请证书

证书有效期为5年。

  1. 登录IEF管理控制台,在“总览”页面切换实例为铂金版。
  2. 选择左侧导航栏的“边缘资源 > 边缘节点”
  3. 单击边缘节点名称,进入边缘节点详情。
  4. 选择“证书”页签,单击“添加证书”
  5. 输入证书名称,单击“确定”

    证书添加成功后会自动下载,请妥善保管证书。

    图1 添加证书

使用证书

证书用于终端设备与MQTT broker通信时鉴权。

下面是Go语言代码样例Java语言代码样例,演示了如何使用证书做鉴权。

  1. 客户端不需要校验服务端证书,单向认证即可。
  2. 内置MQTT broker默认开启8883端口。
  3. 样例中的Go语言MQTT Client引用了github.com/eclipse/paho.mqtt.golang开源库。
  4. 客户端需要处理断连事件,实现掉线重连机制,提高连接可靠性。

Go语言代码样例

package main

import (
	"crypto/tls"
	"crypto/x509"
	"fmt"
	"math/rand"
	"sync"
	"time"

	MQTT "github.com/eclipse/paho.mqtt.golang"
)

func main() {
	subClient := InitMqttClient(onSubConnectionLost)
	pubClient := InitMqttClient(onPubConnectionLost)

	wait := sync.WaitGroup{}
	wait.Add(1)

	go func() {
		for {
			time.Sleep(1*time.Second)
			pubClient.Publish("topic", 0, false, "hello world")
		}
	}()

	subClient.Subscribe("topic", 0, onReceived)

	wait.Wait()
}

func InitMqttClient(onConnectionLost MQTT.ConnectionLostHandler) MQTT.Client {
	pool := x509.NewCertPool()
	cert, err := tls.LoadX509KeyPair("/tmp/example_cert.crt", /tmp/example_cert.key")
	if err != nil {
		panic(err)
	}

	tlsConfig := &tls.Config{
		RootCAs: pool,
		Certificates: []tls.Certificate{cert},
		// 单向认证,client不校验服务端证书
		InsecureSkipVerify: true,
	}
    // 使用tls或者ssl协议,连接8883端口
	opts := MQTT.NewClientOptions().AddBroker("tls://127.0.0.1:8883").SetClientID(fmt.Sprintf("%f",rand.Float64()))
	opts.SetTLSConfig(tlsConfig)
	opts.OnConnect = onConnect
	opts.AutoReconnect = false
	// 回调函数,客户端与服务端断连后立刻被触发
	opts.OnConnectionLost = onConnectionLost
	client := MQTT.NewClient(opts)
	loopConnect(client)
	return client
}

func onReceived(client MQTT.Client, message MQTT.Message) {
	fmt.Printf("Receive topic: %s,  payload: %s \n", message.Topic(), string(message.Payload()))
}

// sub客户端与服务端断连后,触发重连机制
func onSubConnectionLost(client MQTT.Client, err error) {
	fmt.Println("on sub connect lost, try to reconnect")
	loopConnect(client)
	client.Subscribe("topic", 0, onReceived)
}

// pub客户端与服务端断连后,触发重连机制
func onPubConnectionLost(client MQTT.Client, err error) {
	fmt.Println("on pub connect lost, try to reconnect")
	loopConnect(client)
}

func onConnect(client MQTT.Client) {
	fmt.Println("on connect")
}

func loopConnect(client MQTT.Client) {
	for {
		token := client.Connect()
		if rs, err := CheckClientToken(token); !rs {
			fmt.Printf("connect error: %s\n", err.Error())
		} else {
			break
		}
		time.Sleep(1 * time.Second)
	}
}

func CheckClientToken(token MQTT.Token) (bool, error) {
	if token.Wait() && token.Error() != nil {
		return false, token.Error()
	}
	return true, nil
}

Java语言代码样例

MqttClientDemo.java文件:

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/*****************************************************************************
 Description: MQTT消息收发JAVA demo。需要先创建边缘节点并下载获取客户端证书
 ****************************************************************************/

package com.example.demo;

import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;

import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.IMqttDeliveryToken;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttCallback;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttClient;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttConnectOptions;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttException;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.MqttMessage;
import org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3.persist.MemoryPersistence;

/********************************************************************
 * MQTT Demo 展示客户端连接边缘节点broker进行消息的收发,连接进行SSL安全认证,demo演示包括如下:
 * 1、MQTT接收客户端,接收MQTT消息
 * 2、MQTT发送客户端,发送MQTT消息
 ********************************************************************/
public class MqttClientDemo {
    private static int QOS_TYPE = 2;
    //MQTT服务器地址
    private static final String MQTT_HOST = "ssl://x.x.x.x:8883";
    //MQTT发送客户端id
    private static final String MQTT_PUB_CLIENT_ID = "pub_client_1";
    //MQTT接收客户端id
    private static final String MQTT_SUB_CLIENT_ID = "sub_client_1";
    //MQTT通道订阅主题topic
    private static final String TOPIC = "/hello";
    //MQTT客户端连接SSL证书配置路径
    public static final String CLIENT_CRT_FILE_PATH = "example_cert.crt";
    public static final String CLIENT_KEY_FILE_PATH = "example_cert.key";
    //MQTT客户端连接超时时间(秒)
    public static final int TIME_OUT_INTERVAL = 10;
    //MQTT客户端发送心跳间隔(秒)
    public static final int HEART_TIME_INTERVAL = 20;
    //MQTT客户端断线重试间隔(毫秒)
    public static final int RECONNECT_INTERVAL = 10000;
    //MQTT客户端发送消息间隔(毫秒)
    public static final int PUBLISH_MSG_INTERVAL = 3000;

    //MQTT client客户端
    private MqttClient mqttClient;
    //MQTT client连接MQTT的客户端ID,一般以客户端唯一标识符表示
    private String clientId;
    //MQTT client连接配置项
    private MqttConnectOptions connOpts;
    //初始化MQTT客户端未订阅任何topic
    private boolean isSubscribe = false;

    public MqttClientDemo(String id) throws MqttException {
        setClientId(id);
        initMqttClient();
        initCallback();
        initConnectOptions();
        connectMqtt();
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * 发送消息
     * @param message 待发送的消息
     * @throws MqttException
     ********************************************************************/
    public void publishMessage(String message) throws MqttException {
        MqttMessage mqttMessage = new MqttMessage(message.getBytes());
        mqttMessage.setQos(QOS_TYPE);
        mqttMessage.setRetained(false);
        mqttClient.publish(TOPIC, mqttMessage);
        System.out.println(String.format("MQTT Client[%s] publish message[%s]", clientId, message));
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * 订阅topic
     * @throws MqttException
     ********************************************************************/
    public void subscribeTopic() throws MqttException {
        int[] Qos = {QOS_TYPE};
        String[] topics = {TOPIC};
        mqttClient.subscribe(topics, Qos);
        isSubscribe = true;
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * 启动线程定时发送MQTT消息
     * @throws MqttException
     ********************************************************************/
    public void startPublishMessage() {
        new Thread() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                while (true) {
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(PUBLISH_MSG_INTERVAL);
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                    try {
                        publishMessage("hello world!");
                    } catch (MqttException e) {
                        System.out.println(String.format("MQTT client[%s] publish message error,errorMsg[%s]", clientId, e.getMessage()));
                    }
                }
            }
        }.start();
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * 初始化MQTT客户端
     * @throws MqttException 连接异常
     ********************************************************************/
    private void initMqttClient() throws MqttException {
        MemoryPersistence persistence = new MemoryPersistence();
        mqttClient = new MqttClient(MQTT_HOST, clientId, persistence);
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * 初始化连接配置
     * @throws MqttException 连接异常
     ********************************************************************/
    private void initConnectOptions() {
        connOpts = new MqttConnectOptions();
        // 设置是否清空session,这里如果设置为false表示服务器会保留客户端的连接记录,这里设置为true表示每次连接到服务器都以新的身份连接
        connOpts.setCleanSession(true);
        connOpts.setHttpsHostnameVerificationEnabled(false);
        // 设置超时时间,单位为秒
        connOpts.setConnectionTimeout(TIME_OUT_INTERVAL);
        // 设置会话心跳时间,单位为秒,服务器会每隔1.5*20秒的时间向客户端发送个消息判断客户端是否在线,但这个方法并没有重连的机制
        connOpts.setKeepAliveInterval(HEART_TIME_INTERVAL);
        SSLSocketFactory factory = null;
        try {
            factory = SslUtil.getSocketFactory(CLIENT_CRT_FILE_PATH, CLIENT_KEY_FILE_PATH);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        // TLS连接配置
        connOpts.setSocketFactory(factory);
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * 发起连接MQTT connect请求
     * @throws MqttException 连接异常
     ********************************************************************/
    private void connectMqtt() throws MqttException {
        mqttClient.connect(connOpts);
        System.out.println(String.format("MQTT client[%s] is connected,the connctOptions: \n%s", clientId, connOpts.toString()));
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * 设置回调接口
     * @throws MqttException 连接异常
     ********************************************************************/
    private void initCallback() {
        mqttClient.setCallback(new MqttMessageCallback());
    }

    private void setClientId(String id) {
        clientId = id;
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * MQTT Client重连函数,调用连接函数并判断是否订阅过Topic,如果订阅过topic则重新订阅topic
     * @throws MqttException
     ********************************************************************/
    private void rconnectMqtt() throws MqttException {
        connectMqtt();
        if (isSubscribe) {
            subscribeTopic();
        }
    }

    /********************************************************************
     * MQTT client 订阅topic后,MQTT 通道有数据,则通过该回调接口接收消息
     * @version V1.0
     ********************************************************************/
    private class MqttMessageCallback implements MqttCallback {

        @Override
        public void connectionLost(Throwable cause) {
            System.out.println(String.format("MQTT Client[%s] connect lost,Retry in 10 seconds,info[%s]", clientId, cause.getMessage()));
            while (!mqttClient.isConnected()) {
                try {
                    Thread.sleep(RECONNECT_INTERVAL);
                    System.out.println(String.format("MQTT Client[%s] reconnect ....", clientId));
                    rconnectMqtt();
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    continue;
                }
            }

        }

        @Override
        public void messageArrived(String topic, MqttMessage mqttMessage) {
            String message = new String(mqttMessage.getPayload());
            System.out.println(String.format("MQTT Client[%s] receive message[%s] from topic[%s]", clientId, message, topic));
        }

        @Override
        public void deliveryComplete(IMqttDeliveryToken iMqttDeliveryToken) {

        }
    }


    public static void main(String[] args) throws MqttException {
        try {
            //订阅MQTT通道
            MqttClientDemo mqttsubClientDemo = new MqttClientDemo(MqttClientDemo.MQTT_SUB_CLIENT_ID);
            mqttsubClientDemo.subscribeTopic();
            //往MQTT通道发送:hello world
            MqttClientDemo mqttpubClientDemo = new MqttClientDemo(MqttClientDemo.MQTT_PUB_CLIENT_ID);
            mqttpubClientDemo.startPublishMessage();
        } catch (MqttException e) {
            System.out.println(String.format("program start error,errorMessage[%s]", e.getMessage()));
        }
    }
}

SslUtil.java文件:

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/*****************************************************************************
 Description: SSL工具类,加载client ssl证书配置,忽略服务器证书校验
 ****************************************************************************/

package com.example.demo;

import java.io.ByteArrayInputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.security.KeyPair;
import java.security.KeyStore;
import java.security.Security;
import java.security.cert.Certificate;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;

import javax.net.ssl.KeyManagerFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;

import org.bouncycastle.jce.provider.BouncyCastleProvider;
import org.bouncycastle.openssl.PEMReader;
import org.bouncycastle.openssl.PasswordFinder;

public class SslUtil {


    /********************************************************************
     * 验证并获取SSLSocketFactory
     ********************************************************************/
    public static SSLSocketFactory getSocketFactory(final String crtFile, final String keyFile) throws Exception {
        Security.addProvider(new BouncyCastleProvider());

        // 1、加载客户端证书
        PEMReader reader_client =
                new PEMReader(new InputStreamReader(new ByteArrayInputStream(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get(crtFile)))));
        X509Certificate cert = (X509Certificate) reader_client.readObject();
        reader_client.close();

        // 2、加载客户端key
        reader_client = new PEMReader(
                new InputStreamReader(new ByteArrayInputStream(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get(keyFile)))),
                new PasswordFinder() {
                    @Override
                    public char[] getPassword() {
                        return null;
                    }
                }
        );

        // 3、发送客户端密钥和证书到服务器进行身份验证
        KeyStore ks = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());
        ks.load(null, null);
        ks.setCertificateEntry("certificate", cert);
        ks.setKeyEntry("private-key", ((KeyPair) reader_client.readObject()).getPrivate(), "".toCharArray(), new Certificate[]{cert});
        KeyManagerFactory kmf = KeyManagerFactory.getInstance(KeyManagerFactory.getDefaultAlgorithm());
        kmf.init(ks, "".toCharArray());

        // 4、创建socket factory
        SSLContext context = SSLContext.getInstance("TLSv1.2");
        TrustManager[] tms = new TrustManager[1];
        TrustManager miTM = new TrustAllManager();
        tms[0] = miTM;
        context.init(kmf.getKeyManagers(), tms, null);

        reader_client.close();

        return context.getSocketFactory();
    }


    /********************************************************************
     * 忽略服务端证书校验
     ********************************************************************/
    static class TrustAllManager implements TrustManager, X509TrustManager {
        @Override
        public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
            return null;
        }

        @Override
        public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] certs, String authType)
                throws CertificateException {
        }

        public boolean isServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] certs) {
            return true;
        }

        public boolean isClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] certs) {
            return true;
        }

        @Override
        public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] certs, String authType)
                throws CertificateException {
        }
    }
}

pom.xml文件:

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>com.example</groupId>
    <artifactId>mqtt.example</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <source>7</source>
                    <target>7</target>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
    <dependencies>
    <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.eclipse.paho/org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3 -->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.eclipse.paho</groupId>
        <artifactId>org.eclipse.paho.client.mqttv3</artifactId>
        <version>1.2.1</version>
    </dependency>
     <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.bouncycastle/bcprov-jdk16 -->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.bouncycastle</groupId>
        <artifactId>bcprov-jdk16</artifactId>
        <version>1.45</version>
    </dependency>
    </dependencies>

</project>
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