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CREATE TRIGGER

Updated at: Jul 15, 2020 GMT+08:00

Function

CREATE TRIGGER creates a trigger. The trigger will be associated with a specified table or view, and will execute a specified function when certain events occur.

Precautions

  • Currently, triggers can be created only on ordinary row-store tables, instead of on column-store tables, temporary tables, or unlogged tables.
  • If multiple triggers of the same kind are defined for the same event, they will be fired in alphabetical order by name.
  • Triggers are usually used for data association and synchronization between multiple tables. SQL execution performance is greatly affected. Therefore, you are advised not to use this statement when a large amount of data needs to be synchronized and performance requirements are high.
  • When a trigger meets the following conditions, the trigger statement and trigger itself can be pushed together down to a DN for execution, improving the trigger execution performance:
    • enable_trigger_shipping and enable_fast_query_shipping are both enabled. (This is the default configuration.)
    • The trigger function used by the source table is a PL/pgSQL function (recommended).
    • The source and target tables have the same type and number of distribution keys, are both row-store tables, and belong to the same Node Group.
    • The INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement on the source table contains an expression about equality comparison between all the distribution keys and the NEW or OLD variable.
    • The INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement on the source table can be pushed down without a trigger.
    • There are only six types of triggers, specified by INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE, AFTER/BEFORE, and FOR EACH ROW, on the source table, and all the triggers can be pushed down.

Syntax

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CREATE [ CONSTRAINT ] TRIGGER trigger_name { BEFORE | AFTER | INSTEAD OF } { event [ OR ... ] }
    ON table_name
    [ FROM referenced_table_name ]
    { NOT DEFERRABLE | [ DEFERRABLE ] { INITIALLY IMMEDIATE | INITIALLY DEFERRED } }
    [ FOR [ EACH ] { ROW | STATEMENT } ]
    [ WHEN ( condition ) ]
    EXECUTE PROCEDURE function_name ( arguments );

Events include:

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    INSERT
    UPDATE [ OF column_name [, ... ] ]
    DELETE
    TRUNCATE

Parameter Description

  • CONSTRAINT

    (Optional) Creates a constraint trigger, that is, a trigger is used as a constraint. Such a trigger is similar to a regular trigger except that the timing of the trigger firing can be adjusted using SET CONSTRAINTS. Constraint triggers must be AFTER ROW triggers.

  • trigger_name

    Specifies the name of a new trigger. The name cannot be schema-qualified because the trigger inherits the schema of its table. In addition, triggers on the same table cannot be named the same. For a constraint trigger, this is also the name to use when you modify the trigger's behavior using SET CONSTRAINTS.

    Value range: a string that complies with the identifier naming convention. A value can contain a maximum of 63 characters.

  • BEFORE

    Specifies that a trigger function is called before the trigger event.

  • AFTER

    Specifies that a trigger function is called after the trigger event. A constraint trigger can only be specified as AFTER.

  • INSTEAD OF

    Specifies that a trigger function directly replaces the trigger event.

  • event

    Specifies the event that will fire a trigger. Values are INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and TRUNCATE. You can also specify multiple trigger events through OR.

    For UPDATE events, use the following syntax to specify a list of columns:

    UPDATE OF column_name1 [, column_name2 ... ]

    The trigger will only fire if at least one of the listed columns is mentioned as a target of the UPDATE statement. INSTEAD OF UPDATE events do not support lists of columns.

  • table_name

    Specifies the name of the table where a trigger needs to be created.

    Value range: name of an existing table in the database

  • referenced_table_name

    Specifies the name of another table referenced by a constraint. This parameter can be specified only for constraint triggers. It does not support foreign key constraints and is not recommended for general use.

    Value range: name of an existing table in the database

  • DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE

    Controls whether a constraint can be deferred. The two parameters determine the timing for firing a constraint trigger, and can be specified only for constraint triggers.

    For details, see CREATE TABLE.

  • INITIALLY IMMEDIATE | INITIALLY DEFERRED

    If a constraint is deferrable, the two clauses specify the default time to check the constraint, and can be specified only for constraint triggers.

    For details, see CREATE TABLE.

  • FOR EACH ROW | FOR EACH STATEMENT

    Specifies the frequency of firing a trigger.

    • FOR EACH ROW indicates that the trigger should be fired once for every row affected by the trigger event.
    • FOR EACH STATEMENT indicates that the trigger should be fired just once per SQL statement.

    If this parameter is not specified, the default value FOR EACH STATEMENT will be used. Constraint triggers can only be specified as FOR EACH ROW.

  • condition

    Specifies a Boolean expression that determines whether a trigger function will actually be executed. If WHEN is specified, the function will be called only when condition returns true.

    In FOR EACH ROW triggers, the WHEN condition can reference the columns of old or new row values by writing OLD.column_name or NEW.column_name, respectively. In addition, INSERT triggers cannot reference OLD and DELETE triggers cannot reference NEW.

    INSTEAD OF triggers do not support WHEN conditions.

    WHEN expressions cannot contain subqueries.

    For constraint triggers, evaluation of the WHEN condition is not deferred, but occurs immediately after the update operation is performed. If the condition does not return true, the trigger will not be queued for deferred execution.

  • function_name

    Specifies a user-defined function, which must be declared as taking no parameters and returning data of the trigger type. This function is executed when a trigger fires.

  • arguments

    Specifies an optional, comma-separated list of parameters to be provided to a function when a trigger is executed. Parameters are literal string constants. Simple names and numeric constants can also be included, but they will all be converted to strings. Check descriptions of the implementation language of a trigger function to find out how these parameters are accessed within the function.

    The following details trigger types:

    • INSTEAD OF triggers must be marked as FOR EACH ROW and can be defined only on views.
    • BEFORE and AFTER triggers on a view must be marked as FOR EACH STATEMENT.
    • TRUNCATE triggers must be marked as FOR EACH STATEMENT.
    Table 1 Types of triggers supported on tables and views

    Trigger Timing

    Trigger Event

    Row-level

    Statement-level

    BEFORE

    INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE

    Tables

    Tables and views

    TRUNCATE

    Not supported

    Tables

    AFTER

    INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE

    Tables

    Tables and views

    TRUNCATE

    Not supported

    Tables

    INSTEAD OF

    INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE

    Views

    Not supported

    TRUNCATE

    Not supported

    Not supported

    Table 2 Special variables in the functions PL/pgSQL triggers

    Variable

    Description

    NEW

    New tuple for INSERT/UPDATE operations. This variable is NULL for DELETE operations.

    OLD

    Old tuple for UPDATE/DELETE operations. This variable is NULL for INSERT operations.

    TG_NAME

    Trigger name

    TG_WHEN

    Trigger timing (BEFORE/AFTER/INSTEAD OF)

    TG_LEVEL

    Trigger frequency (ROW/STATEMENT)

    TG_OP

    Trigger event (INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE/TRUNCATE)

    TG_RELID

    OID of the table where a trigger is located

    TG_RELNAME

    Name of the table where a trigger is located. (This variable is now discarded and is replaced by TG_TABLE_NAME.)

    TG_TABLE_NAME

    Name of the table where a trigger is located.

    TG_TABLE_SCHEMA

    Schema information of the table where a trigger is located

    TG_NARGS

    Number of parameters for a trigger function

    TG_ARGV[]

    List of parameters for a trigger function

Examples

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-- Create a source table and a target table:
CREATE TABLE test_trigger_src_tbl(id1 INT, id2 INT, id3 INT);
CREATE TABLE test_trigger_des_tbl(id1 INT, id2 INT, id3 INT);

-- Create a trigger function:
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tri_insert_func() RETURNS TRIGGER AS
           $$
           DECLARE
           BEGIN
                   INSERT INTO test_trigger_des_tbl VALUES(NEW.id1, NEW.id2, NEW.id3);
                   RETURN NEW;
           END
           $$ LANGUAGE PLPGSQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tri_update_func() RETURNS TRIGGER AS
           $$
           DECLARE
           BEGIN
                   UPDATE test_trigger_des_tbl SET id3 = NEW.id3 WHERE id1=OLD.id1;
                   RETURN OLD;
           END
           $$ LANGUAGE PLPGSQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION TRI_DELETE_FUNC() RETURNS TRIGGER AS
           $$
           DECLARE
           BEGIN
                   DELETE FROM test_trigger_des_tbl WHERE id1=OLD.id1;
                   RETURN OLD;
           END
           $$ LANGUAGE PLPGSQL;

-- Create an INSERT trigger:
CREATE TRIGGER insert_trigger
           BEFORE INSERT ON test_trigger_src_tbl
           FOR EACH ROW
           EXECUTE PROCEDURE tri_insert_func();

-- Create an UPDATE trigger:
CREATE TRIGGER update_trigger
           AFTER UPDATE ON test_trigger_src_tbl  
           FOR EACH ROW
           EXECUTE PROCEDURE tri_update_func();

-- Create a DELETE trigger:
CREATE TRIGGER delete_trigger
           BEFORE DELETE ON test_trigger_src_tbl
           FOR EACH ROW
           EXECUTE PROCEDURE tri_delete_func();

-- Execute the INSERT event and check the trigger results:
INSERT INTO test_trigger_src_tbl VALUES(100,200,300);
SELECT * FROM test_trigger_src_tbl;
SELECT * FROM test_trigger_des_tbl;  // Check whether the trigger operation takes effect.

-- Execute the UPDATE event and check the trigger results:
UPDATE test_trigger_src_tbl SET id3=400 WHERE id1=100;
SELECT * FROM test_trigger_src_tbl;
SELECT * FROM test_trigger_des_tbl;  // Check whether the trigger operation takes effect.

-- Execute the DELETE event and check the trigger results:
DELETE FROM test_trigger_src_tbl WHERE id1=100;
SELECT * FROM test_trigger_src_tbl;
SELECT * FROM test_trigger_des_tbl;  // Check whether the trigger operation takes effect.

-- Modify a trigger:
ALTER TRIGGER delete_trigger ON test_trigger_src_tbl RENAME TO delete_trigger_renamed;

-- Disable insert_trigger:
ALTER TABLE test_trigger_src_tbl DISABLE TRIGGER insert_trigger;  

-- Disable all triggers on the current table:
ALTER TABLE test_trigger_src_tbl DISABLE TRIGGER ALL;  

-- Delete the triggers:
DROP TRIGGER insert_trigger ON test_trigger_src_tbl;
DROP TRIGGER update_trigger ON test_trigger_src_tbl;
DROP TRIGGER delete_trigger_renamed ON test_trigger_src_tbl;

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