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Data Redaction

Updated at: Sep 17, 2021 GMT+08:00

GaussDB(DWS) provides the column-level dynamic data masking (DDM) function. For sensitive data, such as the ID card number, mobile number, and bank card number, the DDM function is used to redact the original data to protect data security and user privacy.

  • You can create a redaction policy for a specified table object and set the effective scope of the policy. For details, see "CREATE REDACTION POLICY" in the SQL Syntax.
  • You can modify a redaction policy using the provided syntax, including modifying expressions for the policy to take effect, renaming the policy, and adding, modifying, and deleting redacted columns. For details, see "ALTER REDACTION POLICY" in the SQL Syntax.
  • You can delete a redaction policy by deleting data redaction function information of the policy from all columns of a table. For details, see "DROP REDACTION POLICY" in the SQL Syntax.
  • Redaction policy information is stored in the system catalog PG_REDACTION_POLICY, and redacted column information is stored in the system catalog PG_REDACTION_COLUMN.
  • You can view information about the redaction policy and redacted columns in the system views REDACTION_POLICIES and REDACTION_COLUMNS.
  • Generally, you can execute a SELECT statement to view the data redaction result. If the statement has the following features, sensitive data may be deliberately obtained. In this case, an error will be reported during statement execution.
    • The GROUP BY clause references a Target Entry that contains redacted columns as the target column.
    • The DISTINCT clause is executed on the output redacted columns.
    • The statement contains CTE.
    • Set operations are involved.
    • The target columns of a subquery are not redacted columns of the base table, but are the expressions or function calls for the redacted columns of the base table.
  • You can use COPY TO or GDS to export the redacted data. As the redacted data is irreversible, any secondary operation on the redacted data is meaningless.
  • The target columns of UPDATE, MERGE INTO, and DELETE statements cannot contain redacted columns.
  • The UPSERT statement allows you to update data using EXCLUDED. If data in the base table is updated by referencing redacted columns, the data may be modified by mistake. As a result, an error will be reported during the execution.

Examples

The following uses the employee table emp, administrator alice, and common users matu and july as examples to describe the data redaction process. The user alice is the owner of the emp table. The emp table contains private data such as the employee name, mobile number, email address, bank card number, and salary.

  1. Create users alice and matu:
    CREATE ROLE alice PASSWORD 'Gauss@123';
    CREATE ROLE matu PASSWORD 'Gauss@123';
    CREATE ROLE july PASSWORD 'Gauss@123';
  2. Create the emp table as user alice, and insert three employee records into the table.
    CREATE TABLE emp(id int, name varchar(20), phone_no varchar(11), card_no number, card_string varchar(19), email text, salary numeric(100, 4), birthday date);
    INSERT INTO emp VALUES(1, 'anny', '13420002340', 1234123412341234, '1234-1234-1234-1234', 'smithWu@163.com', 10000.00, '1999-10-02');
    INSERT INTO emp VALUES(1, 'bob', '18299023211', 3456345634563456, '3456-3456-3456-3456', '66allen_mm@qq.com', 9999.99, '1989-12-12');
    INSERT INTO emp VALUES(1, 'cici', '15512231233', NULL, NULL, 'jonesishere@sina.com', NULL, '1992-11-06');
  3. User alice grants the emp table read permission to users matu and july.
    GRANT SELECT ON emp TO matu, july;
  4. Only user alice can view all employee information. Users matu and july cannot view bank card numbers and salary data of the employees. Create a redaction policy for the emp table and bind the redaction function to card_no, card_string, and salary columns, respectively.
    CREATE REDACTION POLICY mask_emp ON emp WHEN (current_user IN ('matu', 'july'))
     ADD COLUMN card_no WITH mask_full(card_no),
     ADD COLUMN card_string WITH mask_partial(card_string, 'VVVVFVVVVFVVVVFVVVV','VVVV-VVVV-VVVV-VVVV','#',1,12),
     ADD COLUMN salary WITH mask_partial(salary, '9', 1, length(salary) - 2);
  5. Switch to users matu and july and view the emp table, respectively.
    SET ROLE matu PASSWORD 'Gauss@123';
    SELECT * FROM emp;
     id | name |  phone_no   | card_no |     card_string     |        email         |   salary   |      birthday       
    ----+------+-------------+---------+---------------------+----------------------+------------+---------------------
      1 | anny | 13420002340 |       0 | ####-####-####-1234 | smithWu@163.com      | 99999.9990 | 1999-10-02 00:00:00
      1 | bob  | 18299023211 |       0 | ####-####-####-3456 | 66allen_mm@qq.com    |  9999.9990 | 1989-12-12 00:00:00
      1 | cici | 15512231233 |         |                     | jonesishere@sina.com |            | 1992-11-06 00:00:00
    (3 rows)
    SET ROLE july PASSWORD 'Gauss@123';
    SELECT * FROM emp;
     id | name |  phone_no   | card_no |     card_string     |        email         |   salary   |      birthday       
    ----+------+-------------+---------+---------------------+----------------------+------------+---------------------
      1 | anny | 13420002340 |       0 | ####-####-####-1234 | smithWu@163.com      | 99999.9990 | 1999-10-02 00:00:00
      1 | bob  | 18299023211 |       0 | ####-####-####-3456 | 66allen_mm@qq.com    |  9999.9990 | 1989-12-12 00:00:00
      1 | cici | 15512231233 |         |                     | jonesishere@sina.com |            | 1992-11-06 00:00:00
    (3 rows)
  6. User matu also has the permission for viewing all employee information, but user july does not. Modify the effective scope of the redaction policy.
    ALTER REDACTION POLICY mask_emp ON emp WHEN(current_user = 'july');
  7. Switch to users matu and july and view the emp table again, respectively.
    SET ROLE matu PASSWORD 'Gauss@123';
    SELECT * FROM emp;
     id | name |  phone_no   |     card_no      |     card_string     |        email         |   salary   |      birthday       
    ----+------+-------------+------------------+---------------------+----------------------+------------+---------------------
      1 | anny | 13420002340 | 1234123412341234 | 1234-1234-1234-1234 | smithWu@163.com      | 10000.0000 | 1999-10-02 00:00:00
      1 | bob  | 18299023211 | 3456345634563456 | 3456-3456-3456-3456 | 66allen_mm@qq.com    |  9999.9900 | 1989-12-12 00:00:00
      1 | cici | 15512231233 |                  |                     | jonesishere@sina.com |            | 1992-11-06 00:00:00
    (3 rows)
    SET ROLE july PASSWORD 'Gauss@123';
    SELECT * FROM emp;
     id | name |  phone_no   | card_no |     card_string     |        email         |   salary   |      birthday       
    ----+------+-------------+---------+---------------------+----------------------+------------+---------------------
      1 | anny | 13420002340 |       0 | ####-####-####-1234 | smithWu@163.com      | 99999.9990 | 1999-10-02 00:00:00
      1 | bob  | 18299023211 |       0 | ####-####-####-3456 | 66allen_mm@qq.com    |  9999.9990 | 1989-12-12 00:00:00
      1 | cici | 15512231233 |         |                     | jonesishere@sina.com |            | 1992-11-06 00:00:00
    (3 rows)
  8. The information in the phone_no, email, and birthday columns is private data. Update the redaction policy mask_emp and add three redacted columns.
    ALTER REDACTION POLICY mask_emp ON emp ADD COLUMN phone_no WITH mask_partial(phone_no, '*', 4);
    ALTER REDACTION POLICY mask_emp ON emp ADD COLUMN email WITH mask_partial(email, '*', 1, position('@' in email));
    postgres=> ALTER REDACTION POLICY mask_emp ON emp ADD COLUMN birthday WITH mask_full(birthday);
  9. Switch to user july and view the emp table data.
    SET ROLE july PASSWORD 'Gauss@123';
    SELECT * FROM emp;
     id | name |  phone_no   | card_no |     card_string     |        email         |   salary   |      birthday       
    ----+------+-------------+---------+---------------------+----------------------+------------+---------------------
      1 | anny | 134******** |       0 | ####-####-####-1234 | ********163.com      | 99999.9990 | 1970-01-01 00:00:00
      1 | bob  | 182******** |       0 | ####-####-####-3456 | ***********qq.com    |  9999.9990 | 1970-01-01 00:00:00
      1 | cici | 155******** |         |                     | ************sina.com |            | 1970-01-01 00:00:00
    (3 rows)
  10. Query redaction_policies and redaction_columns to view details about the current redaction policy mask_emp.
    SELECT * FROM redaction_policies;
     object_schema | object_owner | object_name | policy_name |            expression             | enable | policy_description 
    ---------------+--------------+-------------+-------------+-----------------------------------+--------+--------------------
     public        | alice        | emp         | mask_emp    | ("current_user"() = 'july'::name) | t      | 
    (1 row)
    SELECT object_name, column_name, function_info FROM redaction_columns;
     object_name | column_name |                                             function_info                                             
    -------------+-------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     emp         | card_no     | mask_full(card_no)
     emp         | card_string | mask_partial(card_string, 'VVVVFVVVVFVVVVFVVVV'::text, 'VVVV-VVVV-VVVV-VVVV'::text, '#'::text, 1, 12)
     emp         | email       | mask_partial(email, '*'::text, 1, "position"(email, '@'::text))
     emp         | salary      | mask_partial(salary, '9'::text, 1, (length((salary)::text) - 2))
     emp         | birthday    | mask_full(birthday)
     emp         | phone_no    | mask_partial(phone_no, '*'::text, 4)
    (6 rows)
  11. If there is no need to set a redaction policy for the emp table, delete the redaction policy mask_emp.
    DROP REDACTION POLICY mask_emp ON emp;

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