Relational Database ServiceRelational Database Service

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Updated at: Apr 02, 2022 GMT+08:00

Instance Usage Specifications

Database Connection

RDS for PostgreSQL uses a process architecture, providing a backend service process for each client connection.

  • Set max_connections depending on the type of your application. Use the parameter settings provided on pgtune as examples:
    • Set max_connections to 200 for web applications.
    • Set max_connections to 300 for OLTP applications.
    • Set max_connections to 40 for data warehouses.
    • Set max_connections to 20 for desktop applications.
    • Set max_connections to 100 for hybrid applications.
  • Limit the maximum number of connections allowed for a single user based on workload requirements.
    ALTER ROLE xxx CONNECTION LIMIT xxx;
  • Set the number of active connections to two to three times the number of vCPUs.
  • Avoid long transactions, which may block autovacuum and affect database performance.
  • Release persistent connections periodically because maintaining persistent connections may generate large cache and cause high memory consumption.
  • Check the application framework to prevent the application from automatically starting transactions without performing any operations.

Read Replicas

  • Avoid long transactions, which may cause query conflicts and affect playback.
  • Configure hot_standby_feedback for instances requiring real-time data and set max_standby_streaming_delay to a proper value.
  • Monitor long transactions, long connections, and replication delay and handle problems in a timely manner.
  • Ensure that applications connected to a read replica can be switched to other nodes because read replicas are single-node instances incapable of providing high availability.

Reliability and Availability

  • Select primary/standby DB instances for production databases.
  • Keep storage usage less than 70% for production databases to prevent problems caused by full storage.
  • Deploy primary and standby instances in different AZs to improve availability.
  • Set the time window for automated backup to off-peak hours. Do not disable full backup.
  • Set asynchronous replication between primary and standby DB instances to prevent workloads on the primary instance from being blocked due to a fault on the standby instance.

Stability

  • Commit or roll back two-phase transactions in a timely manner to prevent database bloat.
  • Delete the replication slots that are no longer used for logical replication to prevent database bloat.
  • Change the table structure during off-peak hours, for example, adding fields or indexes.
  • To create indexes during peak hours, use the CONCURRENTLY syntax to avoid blocking the DML of the table.
  • Before modifying the structure of a table during peak hours, perform a verification test to prevent the table from being rewritten.
  • Configure a lock wait timeout duration for DDL operations to avoid blocking operations on related tables.
  • Partition your database if its capacity exceeds 2 TB.
  • If a frequently accessed table contains more than 20 million records or its size exceeds 10 GB, split the table or create partitions.
  • Ensure that the number of tables in a single instance do not exceed 20,000, and the number of tables in a single database do not exceed 4,000.

Routine O&M

  • Periodically download and view slow query logs on the Logs page to find out and resolve performance problems in a timely manner.
  • Periodically check the resource usage of your database. If the resources are insufficient, scale up your instance specifications in a timely manner.
  • Monitor and pay attention to the age of your database. If the database is too old, handle it in a timely manner to prevent the database from being unavailable due to transaction ID wraparound.
  • Run the SELECT statement before deleting or modifying a record.
  • After a large amount of data is deleted or updated in a table, run VACUUM on the table.
  • Pay attention to the number of available replication slots and ensure that at least one replication slot is available for database backup.
  • Clear the replication slots that are no longer used to prevent the replication slots from blocking log reclaiming.

Security

  • Prevent your database from being accessed from the Internet. If you want to allow the access from the Internet, bind an EIP to your DB instance and configure a whitelist.
  • Use SSL to connect to your DB instance.

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