Help Center > > User Guide> MRS Cluster Component Operation Guide> Using Kafka> Synchronizing Binlog-based MySQL Data to the MRS Cluster

Synchronizing Binlog-based MySQL Data to the MRS Cluster

Updated at: Nov 06, 2019 GMT+08:00

This section describes how to use the Maxwell data synchronization tool to migrate offline binlog-based data to an MRS Kafka cluster.

Maxwell is an open source application that reads MySQL binlogs, converts operations, such as addition, deletion, and modification, into a JSON format, and sends them to an output end, such as a console, a file, and Kafka. For details about Maxwell, visit https://maxwells-daemon.io. Maxwell can be deployed on an MySQL server or on other servers that can communicate with MySQL.

Maxwell runs on a Linux server, including EulerOS, Ubuntu, Debian, CentOS, and OpenSUSE and needs support from Java 1.8+.

The following provides details about data synchronization.

  1. Configuring MySQL
  2. Installing Maxwell
  3. Configuring Maxwell
  4. Starting Maxwell
  5. Verifying Maxwell
  6. Stopping Maxwell
  7. Format of the Maxwell Generated Data and Description of Common Fields

Configuring MySQL

  1. Start the binlog, open the my.cnf file in MySQL, and check whether server_id, log-bin, and binlog_format are configured in the [mysqld] block. If they are not configured, run the following command to add configuration items and restart MySQL. If they are configured, skip this step.

    $ vi my.cnf
    
    [mysqld]
    server_id=1
    log-bin=master
    binlog_format=row

  2. Maxwell needs to connect to MySQL, create a database named maxwell for storing metadata, and access the database to be synchronized. Therefore, you are advised to create a MySQL user for Maxwell to use. Log in to MySQL as user root and run the following commands to create a user named maxwell (XXXXXX indicates the password and needs to be replaced with actual one).

    • If Maxwell is deployed on a non-MySQL server, the created user maxwell must have a permission to remotely log in to the database. In this case, run the following command to create the user:

      mysql> GRANT ALL on maxwell.* to 'maxwell'@'%' identified by 'XXXXXX';

      mysql> GRANT SELECT, REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE on *.* to 'maxwell'@'%';

    • If Maxwell is deployed on the MySQL server, the created user maxwell can be configured to log in to the database only on the local host. In this case, run the following command:

      mysql> GRANT SELECT, REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE on *.* to 'maxwell'@'localhost' identified by 'XXXXXX';

      mysql> GRANT ALL on maxwell.* to 'maxwell'@'localhost';

Installing Maxwell

  1. Download the installation package at https://github.com/zendesk/maxwell/releases and select the maxwell-XXX.tar.gz binary file for download. In the file name, XXX indicates a version number.
  2. Use a transmission tool, such as WinSCP, to upload the tar.gz package to any directory (the /opt directory of the Master node used as an example here).
  3. Use PuTTY to log in to the server where Maxwell is deployed and run the following command to go to the directory where the tar.gz package is stored.

    cd /opt

  4. Run the following commands to decompress the maxwell-XXX.tar.gz package and go to the maxwell-XXX directory:

    tar -zxvf maxwell-XXX.tar.gz

    cd maxwell-XXX

Configuring Maxwell

If the conf directory exists in the maxwell-XXX folder, configure the config.properties file. For details about the configuration items, see Table 1. If the conf directory does not exist, change config.properties.example in the maxwell-XXX folder to config.properties.

Table 1 Maxwell configuration item description

Configuration Item

Mandatory or Not

Description

Default Value

user

Yes

Name of the user for connecting to MySQL, that is, the user created in 2.

-

password

Yes

Password for connecting to MySQL

-

host

No

MySQL address

localhost

port

No

MySQL port

3306

log_level

No

Log print level. The options are as follows:

  • debug
  • info
  • warn
  • error

info

output_ddl

No

Whether to send a DDL (modified based on definitions of the database and data table) event

  • true: Send DDL events.
  • false: Do not send DDL events.

false

producer

Yes

Producer type. Set this parameter to kafka.

  • stdout: Print the generated events in logs.
  • kafka: Send the generated events to Kafka.

stdout

producer_partition_by

No

Partition policy used to ensure that data of the same type is written to the same partition of Kafka.

  • database: Partitioning by database name, ensuring that events of the same database are written to the same partition of Kafka
  • table: Partitioning by table name, ensuring that events of the same table are written to the same partition of Kafka

databa

ignore_producer_error

No

Whether to ignore the error that the producer fails to send data.

  • true: The error information is logged and the error data is skipped. The program continues to run.
  • false: The error information is logged and the program is terminated.

true

metrics_slf4j_interval

No

Interval for outputting statistics on data successfully uploaded or failed to be uploaded to Kafka in logs. The unit is second.

60

kafka.bootstrap.servers

Yes

Address of the Kafka proxy node. The value is in the format of HOST:PORT[,HOST:PORT].

-

kafka_topic

No

Name of the topic that is written to Kafka

maxwell

dead_letter_topic

No

Kafka topic used to record the primary key of the error log record when an error occurs when the record is sent

-

kafka_version

No

Kafka producer version used by Maxwell, which cannot be configured in the config.properties file. You need to use the -- kafka_version xxx parameter to import the version number when starting the command.

-

kafka_partition_hash

No

Kafka topic partitioning algorithm. The value can be default or murmur3.

default

kafka_key_format

No

Key generation method of the Kafka record. The value can be array or Hash.

Hash

ddl_kafka_topic

No

Topic that is written to the DDL operation when output_ddl is set to true

{kafka_topic}

filter

No

Used to filter databases or tables

  • If only the mydatabase database needs to be collected, set this parameter to the following:

    exclude: *.*,include: mydatabase.*

  • If only the mydatabase.mytable table needs to be collected, set this parameter to the following:

    exclude: *.*,include: mydatabase.mytable

  • If only the mytable, mydate_123, and mydate_456 tables in the mydatabase database need to be collected, set this parameter to the following:

    exclude: *.*,include: mydatabase.mytable, include: mydatabase./mydate_\\d*/

-

Starting Maxwell

  1. Use PuTTY to log in to the server where Maxwell is deployed.
  2. Run the following command to go to the Maxwell installation directory:

    cd /opt/maxwell-1.21.0/

    For the first time to use Maxwell, you are advised to change log_level in conf/config.properties to debug (debug level) so that you can check whether data can be obtained from MySQL and sent to Kafka after startup. After the entire process is debugged, change log_level to info, and then restart Maxwell for the modification to take effect.

    # log level [debug | info | warn | error]

    log_level=debug

  3. Run the following commands to start Maxwell:

    source /opt/client/bigdata_env

    bin/Maxwell

    bin/maxwell --user='maxwell' --password='XXXXXX' --host='127.0.0.1' \

    --producer=kafka --kafka.bootstrap.servers=kafkahost:9092 --kafka_topic=Maxwell

    In the preceding commands, user, password, and host indicate the username, password, and IP address of MySQL, respectively. You can configure the three parameters by modifying configurations of the configuration items or using the preceding commands. kafkahost indicates the IP address of the Core node in the streaming cluster.

    If information similar to the following is displayed, Maxwell has started successfully.

    Success to start Maxwell [78092].

Verifying Maxwell

  1. Use PuTTY to log in to the server where Maxwell is deployed.
  2. Run the following command to view the log. If the log file does not contain an ERROR log and the following information is displayed, the connection between Maxwell and MySQL is normal:

    BinlogConnectorLifecycleListener - Binlog connected.

  3. Log in to the MySQL database and update, create, or delete test data. The following provides operation statement examples for your reference.

    --Creating a database
    create database test;
    --Creating a table
    create table test.e (
      id int(10) not null primary key auto_increment,
      m double,
      c timestamp(6),
      comment varchar(255) charset 'latin1'
    );
    -- Adding a record
    insert into test.e set m = 4.2341, c = now(3), comment = 'I am a creature of light.';
    --Updating a record
    update test.e set m = 5.444, c = now(3) where id = 1;
    --Deleting a record
    delete from test.e where id = 1;
    --Modifying a table
    alter table test.e add column torvalds bigint unsigned after m;
    --Deleting a table
    drop table test.e;
    -- Deleting a database
    drop database test;

  4. Check the Maxwell logs. If no WARN/ERROR is displayed, Maxwell is installed and configured properly.

    To check whether the data is successfully uploaded, set log_level in the config.properties file to debug. When the data is successfully uploaded, the following JSON data is printed immediately. For details about the fields, see Format of the Maxwell Generated Data and Description of Common Fields.
    {"database":"test","table":"e","type":"insert","ts":1541150929,"xid":60556,"commit":true,"data":{"id":1,"m":4.2341,"c":"2018-11-02 09:28:49.297000","comment":"I am a creature of light."}}
    ...

    After the entire process is debugged, you can change the value of log_level in the config.properties file to info to reduce the number of logs to be printed and restart Maxwell for the modification to take effect.

    # log level [debug | info | warn | error]
    log_level=info

Stopping Maxwell

  1. Use PuTTY to log in to the server where Maxwell is deployed.
  2. Run the command to obtain the Maxwell process ID (PID). The second field in the command output is PID.

    ps -ef | grep Maxwell | grep -v grep

  3. Run the following command to forcibly stop the Maxwell process:

    kill -9 PID

Format of the Maxwell Generated Data and Description of Common Fields

The data generated by Maxwell is in JSON format. The common fields are described as follows:

  • type: operation type. The options are database-create, database-drop, table-create, table-drop, table-alter, insert, update, and delete.
  • database: name of the database to be operated
  • ts: operation time, which is a 13-digit timestamp
  • table: name of the table to be operated
  • data: content after data is added, deleted, or modified
  • old: content before data is modified or schema definition before a table is modified
  • sql: SQL statement for DDL operations
  • def: schema definition for table creation and modification
  • xid: unique ID of an object
  • commit: check whether such operations as data addition, deletion, and modification have been submitted.

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