Help Center > > User Guide> Disk Capacity Expansion> Extending Disk Partitions and File Systems (Linux)> Extending Partitions and File Systems for System Disks (Linux)

Extending Partitions and File Systems for System Disks (Linux)

Updated at: Dec 30, 2021 GMT+08:00

Scenarios

After a disk has been expanded on the management console, the disk size is enlarged, but the additional space cannot be used directly.

In Linux, you must allocate the additional space to an existing partition or a new partition.

If the disk capacity is expanded when its server is stopped, the additional space of a Linux system disk will be automatically added to the partition at the disk end upon the server startup. In this case, the additional space can be used directly.

This section uses CentOS 7.4 64bit to describe how to extend the disk partition using growpart and fdisk. The method is used for ECS only. The method for allocating the additional space varies with the server OS. This example is used for reference only. For detailed operations and differences, see the corresponding OS documents.

For how to extend the partitions and file systems on a BMS system disk, see How Do I Increase the Size of the Root Partition of a BMS Which Is Quickly Provisioned?

Performing the expansion operations with caution. Misoperation may lead to data loss or exceptions. Therefore, you are advised to back up the disk data using backups or snapshots before expansion. For details about backups, see Managing EVS Backup. For details about snapshots, see Creating a Snapshot (OBT).

Prerequisites

Extending an Existing MBR Partition

CentOS 7.4 64bit is used as the sample OS. Originally, system disk /dev/vda has 40 GB and one partition (/dev/vda1), and then 60 GB is added to the disk. The following procedure shows you how to allocate the additional 60 GB to the existing MBR partition /dev/vda1.

  1. Run the following command to install the growpart tool:

    yum install cloud-utils-growpart

    You can run the growpart command to check whether the growpart tool has been installed. If the command output displays the tool usage instructions, the tool has been installed and you do not need to install it separately.

  2. Run the following command to view the total capacity of the /dev/vda system disk:

    fdisk -l

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    [root@ecs-test-0001 ~]# fdisk -l
    
    Disk /dev/vda: 107.4 GB, 107374182400 bytes, 209715200 sectors
    Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    Disk label type: dos
    Disk identifier: 0x000bcb4e
    
       Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
    /dev/vda1   *        2048    83886079    41942016   83  Linux

  3. Run the following command to view the capacity of the /dev/vda1 partition:

    df -TH

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    [root@ecs-test-0001 ~]# df -TH
    Filesystem     Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/vda1      ext4       43G  2.0G   39G   5% /
    devtmpfs       devtmpfs  2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /dev
    tmpfs          tmpfs     2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /dev/shm
    tmpfs          tmpfs     2.0G  9.0M  2.0G   1% /run
    tmpfs          tmpfs     2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
    tmpfs          tmpfs     398M     0  398M   0% /run/user/0

  4. Run the following command to extend the partition using growpart:

    growpart System disk Partition number

    In this example, run the following command:

    growpart /dev/vda 1

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    [root@ecs-test-0001 ~]# growpart /dev/vda 1
    CHANGED: partition=1 start=2048 old: size=83884032 end=83886080 new: size=209713119,end=209715167

  5. Run the following command to extend the file system of the partition:

    resize2fs Disk partition

    In this example, run the following command:

    resize2fs /dev/vda1

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    [root@ecs-test-0001 ~]# resize2fs /dev/vda1
    resize2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
    Filesystem at /dev/vda1 is mounted on /; on-line resizing required
    old_desc_blocks = 5, new_desc_blocks = 13
    The filesystem on /dev/vda1 is now 26214139 blocks long.

  6. Run the following command to view the new capacity of the /dev/vda1 partition:

    df -TH

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    [root@ecs-test-0001 ~]# df -TH
    Filesystem     Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/vda1      ext4      106G  2.0G   99G   2% /
    devtmpfs       devtmpfs  2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /dev
    tmpfs          tmpfs     2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /dev/shm
    tmpfs          tmpfs     2.0G  9.0M  2.0G   1% /run
    tmpfs          tmpfs     2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
    tmpfs          tmpfs     398M     0  398M   0% /run/user/0

Creating a New MBR Partition

Originally, system disk /dev/vda has 40 GB and one partition (/dev/vda1), and then 40 GB is added to the disk. The following procedure shows you how to create a new MBR partition /dev/vda2 with this 40 GB.

  1. Run the following command to view the disk partition information:

    fdisk -l

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    [root@ecs-2220 ~]# fdisk -l
    
    Disk /dev/vda: 85.9 GB, 85899345920 bytes, 167772160 sectors
    Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    Disk label type: dos
    Disk identifier: 0x0008d18f
    
       Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
    /dev/vda1   *        2048    83886079    41942016   83  Linux

    In the command output, the capacity of the dev/vda system disk is 80 GB, in which the in-use dev/vda1 partition takes 40 GB and the additional 40 GB has not been allocated.

  2. Run the following command to enter fdisk:

    fdisk /dev/vda

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    [root@ecs-2220 ~]# fdisk /dev/vda
    Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).
    
    Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
    Be careful before using the write command.
    
    
    Command (m for help): 

  3. Enter n and press Enter to create a new partition.

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    Command (m for help): n
    Partition type:
       p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
       e   extended
    There are two types of disk partitions:
    • Choosing p creates a primary partition.
    • Choosing e creates an extended partition.

    If the MBR partition style is used, a maximum of 4 primary partitions, or 3 primary partitions and 1 extended partition can be created. The extended partition cannot be used directly and must be divided into logical partitions before use.

    Disk partitions created using GPT are not categorized.

  4. In this example, a primary partition is created. Therefore, enter p and press Enter to create a primary partition.

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    Select (default p): p
    Partition number (2-4, default 2): 

  5. Partition number 2 is used in this example. Therefore, enter 2 and press Enter.

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    Partition number (2-4, default 2): 2
    First sector (83886080-167772159, default 83886080):

  6. Enter the new partition's start sector and press Enter. In this example, the default start sector is used.

    The system displays the start and end sectors of the partition's available space. You can customize the value within this range or use the default value. The start sector must be smaller than the partition's end sector.

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    First sector (83886080-167772159, default 83886080):
    Using default value 83886080
    Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (83886080-167772159,default 167772159):

  7. Enter the new partition's end sector and press Enter. In this example, the default end sector is used.

    The system displays the start and end sectors of the partition's available space. You can customize the value within this range or use the default value. The start sector must be smaller than the partition's end sector.

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (83886080-167772159,
    default 167772159):
    Using default value 167772159
    Partition 2 of type Linux and of size 40 GiB is set
    
    Command (m for help): 

  8. Enter p and press Enter to view the new partition.

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    Command (m for help): p
    
    Disk /dev/vda: 85.9 GB, 85899345920 bytes, 167772160 sectors
    Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    Disk label type: dos
    Disk identifier: 0x0008d18f
    
       Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
    /dev/vda1   *        2048    83886079    41942016   83  Linux
    /dev/vda2        83886080   167772159    41943040   83  Linux
    Command (m for help): 

  9. Enter w and press Enter to write the changes to the partition table.

    Information similar to the following is displayed:
    Command (m for help): w
    The partition table has been altered!
    
    Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
    
    WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
    The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
    the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
    Syncing disks.

    The partition is created.

    In case that you want to discard the changes made before, you can exit fdisk by entering q.

  10. Run the following command to synchronize the new partition table to the OS:

    partprobe

  11. Run the following command to set the file system format for the new partition:

    mkfs -t File system Disk partition

    • Sample command of the ext* file system:

      (The ext4 file system is used in this example.)

      mkfs -t ext4 /dev/vda2

      Information similar to the following is displayed:
      [root@ecs-2220 ~]# mkfs -t ext4 /dev/vda2
      mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
      Filesystem label=
      OS type: Linux
      Block size=4096 (log=2)
      Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
      Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
      2621440 inodes, 10485760 blocks
      524288 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
      First data block=0
      Maximum filesystem blocks=2157969408
      320 block groups
      32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
      8192 inodes per group
      Superblock backups stored on blocks:
              32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
              4096000, 7962624
      
      Allocating group tables: done
      Writing inode tables: done
      Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
      Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
    • Sample command of the xfs file system:

      mkfs -t xfs /dev/vda2

      Information similar to the following is displayed:

      [root@ecs-2220 ~]# mkfs -t xfs /dev/vda2 
      meta-data=/dev/vda2              isize=512     agcount=4, agsize=2621440 blks
               =                       sectsz=512    attr=2, projid32bit=1
               =                       crc=1         finobt=0, sparse=0
      data     =                       bsize=4096    blocks=10485760, imaxpct=25
               =                       sunit=0       swidth=0 blks
      naming   =version2               bsize=4096    ascii-ci=0 ftype=1
      log      =internal log           bsize=4096    blocks=5120, version=2
               =                       sectsz=512    sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
      realtime =none                   extsz=4096    blocks=0, rtextents=0

    The formatting takes a while, and you need to observe the system running status. Once done is displayed in the command output, the formatting is complete.

  12. (Optional) Run the following command to create a mount point:

    Perform this step if you want to mount the partition on a new mount point.

    mkdir Mount point

    In this example, run the following command to create the /opt mount point:

    mkdir /opt

  13. Run the following command to mount the new partition:

    mount Disk partition Mount point

    In this example, run the following command to mount the new partition /dev/vda2 on /opt:

    mount /dev/vda2 /opt

    If the new partition is mounted on a directory that is not empty, the subdirectories and files in the directory will be hidden. Therefore, you are advised to mount the new partition on an empty directory or a new directory. If the new partition must be mounted on a directory that is not empty, move the subdirectories and files in this directory to another directory temporarily. After the partition is successfully mounted, move the subdirectories and files back.

  14. Run the following command to view the mount result:

    df -TH

    Information similar to the following is displayed:

    [root@ecs-2220 ~]# df -TH
    Filesystem     Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/vda1      ext4       43G  2.0G   39G   5% /
    devtmpfs       devtmpfs  509M     0  509M   0% /dev
    tmpfs          tmpfs     520M     0  520M   0% /dev/shm
    tmpfs          tmpfs     520M  7.2M  513M   2% /run
    tmpfs          tmpfs     520M     0  520M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
    tmpfs          tmpfs     104M     0  104M   0% /run/user/0
    /dev/vda2      ext4       43G   51M   40G   1% /opt

    If the server is restarted, the mounting will become invalid. You can set automatic mounting for partitions at system start by modifying the /etc/fstab file. For details, see Setting Automatic Mounting at System Start.

Setting Automatic Mounting at System Start

Modify the fstab file to set automatic disk mounting at server start. You can also set automatic mounting for the servers containing data. This operation will not affect the existing data.

The following procedure shows how to set automatic disk mounting at server start by using UUIDs to identify disks in the fstab file. You are advised not to use device names to identify disks in the file because a device name may change (for example, from /dev/vdb1 to /dev/vdb2) during the server stop or start, resulting in improper server running after restart.

UUID is the unique character string for disk partitions in a Linux system.

  1. Run the following command to query the partition UUID:

    blkid Disk partition

    In this example, run the following command to query the UUID of the /dev/vdb1 partition:

    blkid /dev/vdb1

    Information similar to the following is displayed:

    [root@ecs-test-0001 ~]# blkid /dev/vdb1
    /dev/vdb1: UUID="0b3040e2-1367-4abb-841d-ddb0b92693df" TYPE="ext4"

    The UUID of the /dev/vdb1 partition is displayed.

  2. Run the following command to open the fstab file using the vi editor:

    vi /etc/fstab

  3. Press i to enter the editing mode.
  4. Move the cursor to the end of the file and press Enter. Then, add the following information:

    UUID=0b3040e2-1367-4abb-841d-ddb0b92693df /mnt/sdc                ext4    defaults        0 2
    The preceding content is used for reference only. Add the information that is used in the environment. The parameters are described as follows:
    • The first column indicates the partition UUID obtained in 1.
    • The second column indicates the directory on which the partition is mounted. You can query the mount point using the df -TH command.
    • The third column indicates the file system format of the partition. You can query the file system format using the df -TH command.
    • The fourth column indicates the partition mount option. Normally, this parameter is set to defaults.
    • The fifth column indicates the Linux dump backup option.
      • 0: not use Linux dump backup. Normally, dump backup is not used, and you can set this parameter to 0.
      • 1: use Linux dump backup.
    • The sixth column indicates the fsck option, that is, whether to use fsck to check the attached disk during startup.
      • 0: not use fsck.
      • If the mount point is the root partition (/), this parameter must be set to 1.

        When this parameter is set to 1 for the root partition, this parameter for other partitions must start with 2 so that the system checks the partitions in the ascending order of the values.

  5. Press Esc, enter :wq, and press Enter.

    The system saves the configurations and exits the vi editor.

  6. Perform the following operations to verify the automatic mounting function:

    1. Run the following command to unmount the partition:

      umount Disk partition

      In this example, run the following command:

      umount /dev/vdb1

    2. Run the following command to reload all the content in the /etc/fstab file:

      mount -a

    3. Run the following command to query the file system mounting information:

      mount | grep Mount point

      In this example, run the following command:

      mount | grep /mnt/sdc

      If information similar to the following is displayed, the automatic mounting function takes effect:

      root@ecs-test-0001 ~]# mount | grep /mnt/sdc
      /dev/vdb1 on /mnt/sdc type ext4 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)

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