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CREATE TABLE

Updated at:Jul 15, 2020 GMT+08:00

Function

CREATE TABLE creates a table in the current database. The table will be owned by the user who created it.

Precautions

  • For details about the data types supported by column-store tables, see Data Types Supported by Column-Store Tables.
  • It is recommended that the number of column-store and HDFS partitioned tables do not exceed 1000.
  • The primary key constraint and unique constraint in the table must contain a distribution column.
  • If an error occurs during table creation, after it is fixed, the system may fail to delete the empty disk files created before the last automatic clearance. This problem seldom occurs.
  • Only a PARTIAL CLUSTER KEY constraint can be used as the table-level constraint of column-store tables. Table-level PRIMARY KEY and FOREIGN KEY constraints are not supported.
  • Only the NULL, NOT NULL, and DEFAULT constant values can be used as column-store table column constraints.
  • Whether column-store tables support a delta table is specified by the enable_delta_store parameter. The threshold for storing data into a delta table is specified by the deltarow_threshold parameter.

Syntax

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CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } | UNLOGGED ] TABLE [ IF NOT EXISTS ] table_name 
    ({ column_name data_type [ compress_mode ] [ COLLATE collation ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
        | table_constraint
        | LIKE source_table [ like_option [...] ] }
        [, ... ])
    [ WITH ( {storage_parameter = value} [, ... ] ) ]
    [ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP } ]
    [ COMPRESS | NOCOMPRESS ]
    
    [ DISTRIBUTE BY { REPLICATION | { HASH ( column_name [,...] ) } } ]
    [ TO { GROUP groupname | NODE ( nodename [, ... ] ) } ];
  • column_constraint is as follows:
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    [ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
    { NOT NULL |
      NULL |
      CHECK ( expression ) |
      DEFAULT default_expr |
      UNIQUE index_parameters |
      PRIMARY KEY index_parameters }
    [ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE | INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]
    
  • compress_mode of a column is as follows:
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    { DELTA | PREFIX | DICTIONARY | NUMSTR | NOCOMPRESS }
    
  • table_constraint is as follows:
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    [ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
    { CHECK ( expression ) |
      UNIQUE ( column_name [, ... ] ) index_parameters |
      PRIMARY KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) index_parameters |
      PARTIAL CLUSTER KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) }
    [ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE | INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]
    
  • like_option is as follows:
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    { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } { DEFAULTS | CONSTRAINTS | INDEXES | STORAGE | COMMENTS | PARTITION | RELOPTIONS | DISTRIBUTION | ALL }
    
  • index_parameters is as follows:
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    [ WITH ( {storage_parameter = value} [, ... ] ) ]
    

Parameter Description

  • UNLOGGED

    If this key word is specified, the created table is not a log table. Data written to unlogged tables is not written to the write-ahead log, which makes them considerably faster than ordinary tables. However, an unlogged table is automatically truncated after a crash or unclean shutdown, incurring data loss risks. The contents of an unlogged table are also not replicated to standby servers. Any indexes created on an unlogged table are not automatically logged as well.

    Usage scenario: Unlogged tables do not ensure safe data. Users can back up data before using unlogged tables; for example, users should back up the data before a system upgrade.

    Troubleshooting: If data is missing in the indexes of unlogged tables due to some unexpected operations such as an unclean shutdown, users should re-create the indexes with errors.

  • GLOBAL | LOCAL

    When creating a temporary table, you can specify the GLOBAL or LOCAL keyword before TEMP or TEMPORARY. Currently, the two keywords are used to be compatible with the SQL standard. In fact, a local temporary table will be created regardless of whether GLOBAL or LOCAL is specified.

  • TEMPORARY | TEMP

    If TEMP or TEMPORARY is specified, the created table is a temporary table. Temporary tables are automatically dropped at the end of a session, or optionally at the end of the current transaction. Therefore, apart from CN and other CN errors connected by the current session, you can still create and use temporary table in the current session. Temporary tables are created only in the current session. If a DDL statement involves operations on temporary tables, a DDL error will be generated. Therefore, you are not advised to perform operations on temporary tables in DDL statements. TEMP is equivalent to TEMPORARY.

    • Temporary tables are visible to the current session through schema of the pg_temp start. Users should not delete schema started with pg_temp, pg_toast_temp.
    • If TEMPORARY or TEMP is not specified when you create a table and the schema of the specified table starts with pg_temp_, the table is created as a temporary table.
  • IF NOT EXISTS

    Does not throw an error if a table with the same name exists. A notice is issued in this case.

  • table_name

    Specifies the name of the table to be created.

  • column_name

    Specifies the name of a column to be created in the new table.

  • data_type

    Specifies the data type of the column.

  • compress_mode

    Specifies the compress option of the table, only available for row-store table. The option specifies the algorithm preferentially used by table columns.

    Value range: DELTA, PREFIX, DICTIONARY, NUMSTR, NOCOMPRESS

  • COLLATE collation

    Assigns a collation to the column (which must be of a collatable data type). If no collation is specified, the default collation is used.

  • LIKE source_table [ like_option ... ]

    Specifies a table from which the new table automatically copies all column names, their data types, and their not-null constraints.

    The new table and the source table are decoupled after creation is complete. Changes to the source table will not be applied to the new table, and it is not possible to include data of the new table in scans of the source table.

    Columns and constraints copied by LIKE are not merged with the same name. If the same name is specified explicitly or in another LIKE clause, an error is reported.

    • The default expressions are copied from the source table to the new table only if INCLUDING DEFAULTS is specified. The default behavior is to exclude default expressions, resulting in the copied columns in the new table having default values NULL.
    • The CHECK constraints are copied from the source table to the new table only when INCLUDING CONSTRAINTS is specified. Other types of constraints are never copied to the new table. NOT NULL constraints are always copied to the new table. These rules also apply to column constraints and table constraints.
    • Any indexes on the source table will not be created on the new table, unless the INCLUDING INDEXES clause is specified.
    • STORAGE settings for the copied column definitions are copied only if INCLUDING STORAGE is specified. The default behavior is to exclude STORAGE settings.
    • If INCLUDING COMMENTS is specified, comments for the copied columns, constraints, and indexes are copied. The default behavior is to exclude comments.
    • If INCLUDING PARTITION is specified, the partition definitions of the source table are copied to the new table, and the new table no longer use the PARTITON BY clause. The default behavior is to exclude partition definition of the source table.
    • If INCLUDING RELOPTIONS is specified, the storage parameter (WITH clause of the source table) of the source table is copied to the new table. The default behavior is to exclude partition definition of the storage parameter of the source table.
    • If INCLUDING DISTRIBUTION is specified, the distribution information of the source table is copied to the new table, including distribution type and column, and the new table no longer use the DISTRIBUTE BY clause. The default behavior is to exclude distribution information of the source table.
    • INCLUDING ALL contains the meaning of INCLUDING DEFAULTS, INCLUDING CONSTRAINTS, INCLUDING INDEXES, INCLUDING STORAGE, INCLUDING COMMENTS, INCLUDING PARTITION, INCLUDING RELOPTIONS, and INCLUDING DISTRIBUTION.
    • If the source table contains a sequence with the SERIAL, BIGSERIAL, or SMALLSERIRAL data type, or a column in the source table is a sequence by default and the sequence is created for this table by using CREATE SEQUENCE... OWNED BY, these sequences will not be copied to the new table, and another sequence specific to the new table will be created. This is different from earlier versions. To share a sequence between the source table and new table, create a shared sequence (do not use OWNED BY) and set a column in the source table to this sequence.
    • You are not advised to set a column in the source table to the sequence specific to another table especially when the table is distributed in specific Node Groups, because doing so may result in CREATE TABLE ... LIKE execution failures. In addition, doing so may cause the sequence to become invalid in the source sequence because the sequence will also be deleted from the source table when it is deleted from the table that the sequence is specific to. To share a sequence among multiple tables, you are advised to create a shared sequence for them.
  • WITH ( { storage_parameter = value } [, ... ] )

    Specifies an optional storage parameter for a table or an index.

    Using Numeric of any precision to define column, specifies precision p and scale s. When precision and scale are not specified, the input will be displayed.

    The description of parameters is as follows:

    • FILLFACTOR

      The fillfactor of a table is a percentage between 10 and 100. 100 (complete packing) is the default value. When a smaller fillfactor is specified, INSERT operations pack table pages only to the indicated percentage. The remaining space on each page is reserved for updating rows on that page. This gives UPDATE a chance to place the updated copy of a row on the same page, which is more efficient than placing it on a different page. For a table whose records are never updated, setting the fillfactor to 100 (complete packing) is the appropriate choice, but in heavily updated tables smaller fillfactors are appropriate. The parameter has no meaning for column-store tables.

      Value range: 10–100

    • ORIENTATION

      Specifies the storage mode (row-store, column-store, or ) for table data. This parameter cannot be modified once it is set.

      Valid value:

      • ROW indicates that table data is stored in rows.

        ROW applies to OLTP service, which has many interactive transactions. An interaction involves many columns in the table. Using ROW can improve the efficiency.

      • COLUMN, means the data will be stored in columns.

        CLOUMN applies to data warehouse service, which has a large amount of aggregation computing, and involves a few column operations.

      Default value:

      If an ordinary tablespace is specified, the default is ROW.

    • COMPRESSION

      Specifies the compression level of the table data. It determines the compression ratio and time. Generally, the higher the level of compression, the higher the ratio, the longer the time, and the lower the level of compression, the lower the ratio, the shorter the time. The actual compression ratio depends on the distribution characteristics of loading table data.

      Valid value:

      • The valid values for column-store tables are YES/NO and LOW/MIDDLE/HIGH, and the default is LOW.
      • The valid values for row-store tables are YES and NO, and the default is NO.
    • COMPRESSLEVEL

      Specifies the compression level of the table data. It determines the compression ratio and time. This divides a compression level into sublevels, providing you with more choices for compression rate and duration. As the value becomes greater, the compression rate becomes higher and duration longer at the same compression level. The parameter is only valid for column-store table.

      Value range: 0 to 3. The default value is 0.

    • MAX_BATCHROW

      Specifies the maximum of a storage unit during data loading process. The parameter is only valid for column-store table.

      Value range: 10000 to 60000

    • PARTIAL_CLUSTER_ROWS

      Specifies the number of records to be partial cluster stored during data loading process. The parameter is only valid for column-store table.

      Value range: 600000 to 2147483647

    • DELTAROW_THRESHOLD

      Specifies the upper limit of to-be-imported rows for triggering the data import to a delta table when data is to be imported to a column-store table. This parameter takes effect only if enable_delta_store is set to on. The parameter is only valid for column-store table.

      The value ranges from 0 to 9999. The default value is 100.

    • VERSION

      Specifies the version of ORC storage format.

      Value range: 0.12. ORC 0.12 format is supported currently. More formats will be supported as the development of ORC format.

      Default value: 0.12

  • ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP }

    ON COMMIT determines what to do when you commit a temporary table creation operation. The three options are as follows. Currently, only PRESERVE ROWS and DELETE ROWS can be used.

    • PRESERVE ROWS (Default): No special action is taken at the ends of transactions. The temporary table and its table data are unchanged.
    • DELETE ROWS: All rows in the temporary table will be deleted at the end of each transaction block.
    • DROP: The temporary table will be dropped at the end of the current transaction block.
  • COMPRESS | NOCOMPRESS

    If you specify COMPRESS in the CREATE TABLE statement, the compression feature is triggered in the case of a bulk INSERT operation. If this feature is enabled, a scan is performed for all tuple data within the page to generate a dictionary and then the tuple data is compressed and stored. If NOCOMPRESS is specified, the table is not compressed.

    Default value: NOCOMPRESS, tuple data is not compressed before storage.

  • DISTRIBUTE BY

    Specifies how the table is distributed or replicated between DNs.

    Valid value:

    • REPLICATION: Each row in the table exists on all DNs, that is, each DN has complete table data.
    • HASH (column_name): Each row of the table will be placed into all the DNs based on the hash value of the specified column.
      • When DISTRIBUTE BY HASH (column_name) is specified, the primary key and its unique index must contain the column_name column.
      • When DISTRIBUTE BY HASH (column_name) in a referenced table is specified, the foreign key of the reference table must contain the column_name column.

    Default value: HASH(column_name), the key column of column_name (if any) or the column of distribution column supported by first data type.

    column_name supports the following data types:

    • Integer types: TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, and NUMERIC/DECIMAL
    • Character types: CHAR, BPCHAR, VARCHAR, VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, and TEXT
    • Date/time types: DATE, TIME, TIMETZ, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMPTZ, INTERVAL, and SMALLDATETIME

    When you create a table, the choices of distribution keys and partition keys have major impact on SQL query performance. Therefore, choosing proper distribution column and partition key with strategies.

    • Selecting an Appropriate Distribution Column
      In the data distributed table using Hash, an appropriate distributed array should be used to distribute and store data on multiple DNs evenly, preventing data skew (uneven data distribution across several DNs). Determine the proper distribution column based on the following principles:
      1. Determine whether data is skewed.

        Connect to the database and run the following statements to check the number of tuples on each DN: Replace tablename with the actual name of the table to be analyzed.

        SELECT a.count,b.node_name FROM (SELECT count(*) AS count,xc_node_id FROM tablename GROUP BY xc_node_id) a, pgxc_node b WHERE a.xc_node_id=b.node_id ORDER BY a.count DESC;

        If tuple numbers vary greatly (several times or tenfold) in each DN, a data skew occurs. Change the data distribution key based on the following principles:

      2. Recreate a table to change its distribution keys. ALTER TABLE cannot change distribution keys. Therefore, you need to recreate a table when changing its distribution keys.

        Principles for selecting distribution keys are as follows:

        The column value of the distribution column should be discrete so that data can be evenly distributed on each DN. For example, you are advised to select the primary key of a table as the distribution column, and the ID card number as the distribution column in a personnel information table.

        With the above principles met, you can select join conditions as distribution keys so that join tasks can be pushed down to DNs, reducing the amount of data transferred between the DNs.

    • Selecting appropriate partition keys

      In range partitioning, the table is partitioned into ranges defined by a key column or set of columns, with no overlap between the ranges of values assigned to different partitions. Each range has a dedicated partition for data storage.

      Modify partition keys to make the query result stored in the same or least partitions (partition pruning). Obtaining consecutive I/O to improve the query performance.

      In actual services, time is used to filter query objects. Therefore, you can use time as a partition key, and change the key value based on the total data volume and single data query volume.

  • TO { GROUP groupname | NODE ( nodename [, ... ] ) }

    TO GROUP specifies the Node Group in which the table is created. Currently, it cannot be used for HDFS tables. TO NODE is used for internal scale-out tools.

  • CONSTRAINT constraint_name

    Specifies a name for a column or table constraint. The optional constraint clauses specify constraints that new or updated rows must satisfy for an insert or update operation to succeed.

    There are two ways to define constraints:

    • A column constraint is defined as part of a column definition, and it is bound to a particular column.
    • A table constraint is not bound to any particular columns but can apply to more than one column.
  • NOT NULL

    Indicates that the column is not allowed to contain NULL values.

  • NULL

    The column is allowed to contain NULL values. This is the default setting.

    This clause is only provided for compatibility with non-standard SQL databases. You are advised not to use this clause.

  • CHECK ( expression )

    Specifies an expression producing a Boolean result which new or updated rows must satisfy for an insert or update operation to succeed. Expressions evaluating to TRUE or UNKNOWN succeed. If any row of an insert or update operation produces a FALSE result, an error exception is raised and the insert or update does not alter the database.

    A check constraint specified as a column constraint should reference only the column's values, while an expression appearing in a table constraint can reference multiple columns.

    <>NULL and !=NULL are invalid in an expression. Change them to IS NOT NULL.

  • DEFAULT default_expr

    Assigns a default data value for a column. The value can be any variable-free expressions (Subqueries and cross-references to other columns in the current table are not allowed). The data type of the default expression must match the data type of the column.

    The default expression will be used in any insert operation that does not specify a value for the column. If there is no default value for a column, then the default value is NULL.

  • UNIQUE index_parameters

    UNIQUE ( column_name [, ... ] ) index_parameters

    Specifies that a group of one or more columns of a table can contain only unique values.

    For the purpose of a unique constraint, NULL is not considered equal.

    If DISTRIBUTE BY REPLICATION is not specified, the column table that contains only unique values must contain distribution columns.

  • PRIMARY KEY index_parameters

    PRIMARY KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) index_parameters

    Specifies the primary key constraint specifies that a column or columns of a table can contain only unique (non-duplicate) and non-null values.

    Only one primary key can be specified for a table.

    If DISTRIBUTE BY REPLICATION is not specified, the column set with a primary key constraint must contain distributed columns.

  • DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE

    Controls whether the constraint can be deferred. A constraint that is not deferrable will be checked immediately after every command. Checking of constraints that are deferrable can be postponed until the end of the transaction using the SET CONSTRAINTS command. NOT DEFERRABLE is the default value. Currently, only UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints accept this clause. All the other constraints are not deferrable.

  • PARTIAL CLUSTER KEY

    Specifies a partial cluster key for storage. When importing data to a column-store table, you can perform local data sorting by specified columns (single or multiple).

  • INITIALLY IMMEDIATE | INITIALLY DEFERRED

    If a constraint is deferrable, this clause specifies the default time to check the constraint.

    • If the constraint is INITIALLY IMMEDIATE (default value), it is checked after each statement.
    • If the constraint is INITIALLY DEFERRED, it is checked only at the end of the transaction.

    The constraint check time can be altered using the SET CONSTRAINTS command.

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-- Create a simple table:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t1
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
);

CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t2
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)         DICTIONARY,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
);

-- Create a table and set the default value of the W_STATE column to GA:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t3
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)           DEFAULT 'GA',
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
);

-- Create a table and check whether the W_WAREHOUSE_NAME column is unique at the end of its creation:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t4
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER                NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)   UNIQUE DEFERRABLE,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                        ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                    ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                       ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                    ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                    ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                        ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                    ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2) 
);

-- Create a table with its fillfactor set to 70%:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t5
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER                NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                    ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                        ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                    ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                       ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                    ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                    ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                        ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                    ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2),
    UNIQUE(W_WAREHOUSE_NAME) WITH(fillfactor=70)
);

-- An alternative for the preceding syntax is as follows:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t6
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER                NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)              UNIQUE,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                        ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                    ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                       ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                    ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                    ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                        ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                       ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                    ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
) WITH(fillfactor=70);

-- Create a table and specify that its data is not written to WALs:
CREATE UNLOGGED TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t7
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
);

-- Create a temporary table:
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE warehouse_t24
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
);

-- Create a temporary table in a transaction and specify that data of this table is deleted when the transaction is committed:
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE warehouse_t25
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
) ON COMMIT DELETE ROWS;

-- Create a table and specify that no error is reported for duplicate tables (if any):
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS tpcds.warehouse_t8
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
);

-- Create a table with a primary key constraint:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t11
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER            PRIMARY KEY,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
);

-- An alternative for the preceding syntax is as follows:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t12
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2),
    PRIMARY KEY(W_WAREHOUSE_SK)
);

-- Or use the following statement to create table films with a primary key constraint and specify the name of the constraint:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t13
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2),
    CONSTRAINT W_CSTR_KEY1 PRIMARY KEY(W_WAREHOUSE_SK)
);

-- Create a table with a compound primary key constraint:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t14
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2),
    CONSTRAINT W_CSTR_KEY2 PRIMARY KEY(W_WAREHOUSE_SK, W_WAREHOUSE_ID)
);

-- Create a column-store table.
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t15
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
) WITH (ORIENTATION = COLUMN);

-- Create a column-store table using partial clustered storage:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t16
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2),
    PARTIAL CLUSTER KEY(W_WAREHOUSE_SK, W_WAREHOUSE_ID)
) WITH (ORIENTATION = COLUMN);

-- Define a column-store table with compression enabled:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t17
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
) WITH (ORIENTATION = COLUMN, COMPRESSION=HIGH);

-- Define a table with compression enabled:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t18
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
) COMPRESS;

-- Define a check column constraint:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t19
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               PRIMARY KEY CHECK (W_WAREHOUSE_SK > 0),
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)           CHECK (W_WAREHOUSE_NAME <> ''),
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
);

CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t20
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               PRIMARY KEY,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)           CHECK (W_WAREHOUSE_NAME <> ''),
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2),
    CONSTRAINT W_CONSTR_KEY2 CHECK(W_WAREHOUSE_SK > 0 AND W_WAREHOUSE_NAME <> '') 
);

-- Define a table with each of its rows stored in all DNs:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t21
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2)
)DISTRIBUTE BY REPLICATION;

-- Define a hash table:
CREATE TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t22
(
    W_WAREHOUSE_SK            INTEGER               NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_ID            CHAR(16)              NOT NULL,
    W_WAREHOUSE_NAME          VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_WAREHOUSE_SQ_FT         INTEGER                       ,
    W_STREET_NUMBER           CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_STREET_NAME             VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_STREET_TYPE             CHAR(15)                      ,
    W_SUITE_NUMBER            CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_CITY                    VARCHAR(60)                   ,
    W_COUNTY                  VARCHAR(30)                   ,
    W_STATE                   CHAR(2)                       ,
    W_ZIP                     CHAR(10)                      ,
    W_COUNTRY                 VARCHAR(20)                   ,
    W_GMT_OFFSET              DECIMAL(5,2),
    CONSTRAINT W_CONSTR_KEY3 UNIQUE(W_WAREHOUSE_SK)
)DISTRIBUTE BY HASH(W_WAREHOUSE_SK);

-- Add a varchar column to the tpcds.warehouse_t19 table:
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t19 ADD W_GOODS_CATEGORY varchar(30);

-- Add a check constraint to the tpcds.warehouse_t19 table:
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t19 ADD CONSTRAINT W_CONSTR_KEY4 CHECK (W_STATE <> '');

-- Use one statement to alter the types of two existing columns:
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t19
    ALTER COLUMN W_GOODS_CATEGORY TYPE varchar(80),
    ALTER COLUMN W_STREET_NAME TYPE varchar(100);

-- This statement is equivalent to the preceding statement.
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t19 MODIFY (W_GOODS_CATEGORY varchar(30), W_STREET_NAME varchar(60));

-- Add a Not-Null constraint to an existing column:
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t19 ALTER COLUMN W_GOODS_CATEGORY SET NOT NULL;

-- Remove Not-Null constraints from an existing column:
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t19 ALTER COLUMN W_GOODS_CATEGORY DROP NOT NULL;

-- If no partial cluster is specified in a column-store table, add a partial cluster to the table:
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t17 ADD PARTIAL CLUSTER KEY(W_WAREHOUSE_SK);

-- View the constraint name and delete the partial cluster column of a column-store table:
\d+ tpcds.warehouse_t17
                              Table "tpcds.warehouse_t17"
      Column       |         Type          | Modifiers | Storage  | Stats target | Description 
-------------------+-----------------------+-----------+----------+--------------+-------------
 w_warehouse_sk    | integer               | not null  | plain    |              | 
 w_warehouse_id    | character(16)         | not null  | extended |              | 
 w_warehouse_name  | character varying(20) |           | extended |              | 
 w_warehouse_sq_ft | integer               |           | plain    |              | 
 w_street_number   | character(10)         |           | extended |              | 
 w_street_name     | character varying(60) |           | extended |              | 
 w_street_type     | character(15)         |           | extended |              | 
 w_suite_number    | character(10)         |           | extended |              | 
 w_city            | character varying(60) |           | extended |              | 
 w_county          | character varying(30) |           | extended |              | 
 w_state           | character(2)          |           | extended |              | 
 w_zip             | character(10)         |           | extended |              | 
 w_country         | character varying(20) |           | extended |              | 
 w_gmt_offset      | numeric(5,2)          |           | main     |              | 
Partial Cluster :
    "warehouse_t17_cluster" PARTIAL CLUSTER KEY (w_warehouse_sk)
Has OIDs: no
Distribute By: HASH(w_warehouse_sk)
Location Nodes: ALL DATANODES
Options: orientation=orc, compression=no, version=0.12
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t17 DROP CONSTRAINT warehouse_t17_cluster;

-- Create the joe schema:
CREATE SCHEMA joe;

-- Move a table to another schema:
ALTER TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t19 SET SCHEMA joe;

-- Rename an existing table:
ALTER TABLE joe.warehouse_t19 RENAME TO warehouse_t23;

-- Delete a column from the warehouse_t23 table:
ALTER TABLE joe.warehouse_t23 DROP COLUMN W_STREET_NAME;

-- Delete the tables warehouse.
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t1;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t2;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t3;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t4;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t5;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t6;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t7;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t8;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t9;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t10;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t11;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t12;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t13;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t14;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t15;
DROP TABLE tpcds.warehouse_t16;

Helpful Links

ALTER TABLE, DROP TABLE

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