Image Management ServiceImage Management Service

Compute
Elastic Cloud Server
Bare Metal Server
Auto Scaling
Image Management Service
Dedicated Host
FunctionGraph
Networking
Virtual Private Cloud
Elastic IP
Elastic Load Balance
NAT Gateway
Direct Connect
Virtual Private Network
Domain Name Service
VPC Endpoint
Cloud Connect
Enterprise Switch
Security & Compliance
Anti-DDoS
Web Application Firewall
Host Security Service
Data Encryption Workshop
Database Security Service
Advanced Anti-DDoS
Data Security Center
Container Guard Service
Situation Awareness
Managed Threat Detection
Compass
Cloud Certificate Manager
Anti-DDoS Service
Databases
Relational Database Service
Document Database Service
Data Admin Service
Data Replication Service
GaussDB NoSQL
GaussDB(for MySQL)
Distributed Database Middleware
GaussDB(for openGauss)
Developer Services
ServiceStage
Distributed Cache Service
Simple Message Notification
Application Performance Management
Application Operations Management
Blockchain
API Gateway
Cloud Performance Test Service
Distributed Message Service for Kafka
Distributed Message Service for RabbitMQ
Distributed Message Service for RocketMQ
Cloud Service Engine
DevCloud
ProjectMan
CodeHub
CloudRelease
CloudPipeline
CloudBuild
CloudDeploy
Cloud Communications
Message & SMS
Cloud Ecosystem
Marketplace
Partner Center
User Support
My Account
Billing Center
Cost Center
Resource Center
Enterprise Management
Service Tickets
HUAWEI CLOUD (International) FAQs
ICP License Service
Support Plans
Customer Operation Capabilities
Partner Support Plans
Professional Services
enterprise-collaboration
Meeting
IoT
IoT
Intelligent EdgeFabric
DeveloperTools
SDK Developer Guide
API Request Signing Guide
Terraform
Koo Command Line Interface
Updated at: Feb 22, 2022 GMT+08:00

Installing Cloud-Init

Scenarios

To ensure that you can use the user data injection function to inject initial custom information into ECSs created from a private image (such as setting the ECS login password), install Cloud-Init on the ECS used to create the image.

  • You need to download Cloud-Init from its official website. Therefore, you must bind an EIP to the ECS.
  • If Cloud-Init is not installed, you cannot configure an ECS. As a result, you can only use the password in the image file to log in to the created ECSs.
  • By default, ECSs created from a public image have Cloud-Init installed. You do not need to install or configure Cloud-Init on such ECSs.
  • For ECSs created using an external image file, install and configure Cloud-Init by performing the operations in this section. For how to configure Cloud-Init, see Configuring Cloud-Init.

Prerequisites

  • An EIP has been bound to the ECS.
  • You have logged in to the ECS.
  • The IP address obtaining mode of the ECS is DHCP.

Procedure

  1. Check whether Cloud-Init has been installed.

    For details, see Check Whether Cloud-Init Has Been Installed.

  2. Install Cloud-Init.

    You can install Cloud-Init in any of the following ways: (Recommended) Install Cloud-Init Using the Official Installation Package, Install Cloud-Init Using the Official Source Code Package and pip, and Install Cloud-Init Using the Official GitHub Source Code.

Check Whether Cloud-Init Has Been Installed

Perform the operations provided here to check whether Cloud-Init has been installed.

The methods of checking whether Cloud-Init is installed vary depending on the OSs. Take CentOS 6 as an example. Run the following command to check whether Cloud-Init is installed:

rpm -qa |grep cloud-init

If information similar to the following is displayed, Cloud-Init has been installed:

cloud-init-0.7.5-10.el6.centos.2.x86_64
If Cloud-Init has been installed, perform the following operations:
  • Check whether to use the certificate in the ECS OS. If the certificate is no longer used, delete it.
    • If the certificate is stored in a directory of user root, for example, /$path/$to/$root/.ssh/authorized_keys, run the following commands:

      cd /root/.ssh

      rm authorized_keys

    • If the certificate is not stored in a directory of user root, for example, /$path/$to/$none-root/.ssh/authorized_keys, run the following commands:

      cd /home/centos/.ssh

      rm authorized_keys

  • Run the following command to delete the cache generated by Cloud-Init and ensure that the ECS created from the private image can be logged in by using the certificate:

    sudo rm -rf /var/lib/cloud/*

Do not restart the ECS after performing the configuration. Otherwise, you need to configure it again.

(Recommended) Install Cloud-Init Using the Official Installation Package

The method of installing Cloud-Init on an ECS varies depending on the OS. Perform the installation operations as user root.

The following describes how to install Cloud-Init on an ECS running SUSE Linux, CentOS, Fedora, Debian, and Ubuntu. For other OS types, install the required type of Cloud-Init. For example, you need to install coreos-cloudinit on ECSs running CoreOS.

  • SUSE Linux

    Paths for obtaining the Cloud-Init installation package for SUSE Linux

    http://ftp5.gwdg.de/pub/opensuse/repositories/Cloud:/Tools/

    http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/Cloud:/Tools/

    Select the required repo installation package in the provided paths.

    Take SUSE Enterprise Linux Server 12 as an example. Perform the following steps to install Cloud-Init:

    1. Log in to the ECS used to create a Linux private image.
    2. Run the following command to install the network installation source for SUSE Enterprise Linux Server 12:

      zypper ar http://ftp5.gwdg.de/pub/opensuse/repositories/Cloud:/Tools/SLE_12_SP3/Cloud:Tools.repo

    3. Run the following command to update the network installation source:

      zypper refresh

    4. Run the following command to install Cloud-Init:

      zypper install cloud-init

    5. Run the following commands to enable Cloud-Init to automatically start upon system boot:
      • SUSE 11

        chkconfig cloud-init-local on; chkconfig cloud-init on; chkconfig cloud-config on; chkconfig cloud-final on

        service cloud-init-local status; service cloud-init status; service cloud-config status; service cloud-final status

      • SUSE 12 and openSUSE 12/13/42

        systemctl enable cloud-init-local.service cloud-init.service cloud-config.service cloud-final.service

        systemctl status cloud-init-local.service cloud-init.service cloud-config.service cloud-final.service

      For SUSE and openSUSE, perform the following steps to disable dynamic change of the ECS name:

      1. Run the following command to open the dhcp file using the vi editor:

        vi etc/sysconfig/network/dhcp

      2. Change the value of DHCLIENT_SET_HOSTNAME in the dhcp file to no.
  • CentOS

    Table 1 lists the Cloud-Init installation paths for CentOS. Select the required installation package from the following addresses.

    Table 1 Cloud-Init installation package addresses

    OS Type

    Version

    How to Obtain

    CentOS

    6 32-bit

    https://archives.fedoraproject.org/pub/archive/epel/6/i386/

    6 64-bit

    https://archives.fedoraproject.org/pub/archive/epel/6/x86_64/

    7 64-bit

    https://archives.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/7/x86_64/

    Run the following commands to install Cloud-Init on an ECS running CentOS 6.5 64-bit (example):

    yum install https://archives.fedoraproject.org/pub/archive/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-xx-xx.noarch.rpm

    yum install cloud-init

    xx-xx indicates the version of Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) required by the current OS.

  • Fedora

    Before installing Cloud-Init, ensure that the network installation source address has been configured for the OS by checking whether the /etc/yum.repo.d/fedora.repo file contains the installation source address of the software package. If the file does not contain the address, configure the address by following the instructions on the Fedora official website.

    Run the following command to install Cloud-Init:

    yum install cloud-init

  • Debian and Ubuntu

    Before installing Cloud-Init, ensure that the network installation source address has been configured for the OS by checking whether the /etc/apt/sources.list file contains the installation source address of the software package. If the file does not contain the address, configure the address by following the instructions on the Debian or Ubuntu official website.

    Run the following commands to install Cloud-Init:

    apt-get update

    apt-get install cloud-init

Install Cloud-Init Using the Official Source Code Package and pip

The following operations use Cloud-Init 0.7.9 as an example to describe how to install Cloud-Init.

  1. Download the cloud-init-0.7.9.tar.gz source code package (version 0.7.9 is recommended) and upload it to the /home/ directory of the ECS.

    Download cloud-init-0.7.9.tar.gz from the following path:

    https://launchpad.net/cloud-init/trunk/0.7.9/+download/cloud-init-0.7.9.tar.gz

  2. Create a pip.conf file in the ~/.pip/ directory and edit the following content:

    If the ~/.pip/ directory does not exist, run the mkdir ~/.pip command to create it.

    [global]
    index-url  = https://<$mirror>/simple/
    trusted-host = <$mirror>

    Replace <$mirror> with a public network PyPI source.

    Public network PyPI source: https://pypi.python.org/

  3. Run the following command to install the downloaded Cloud-Init source code package (select --upgrade as needed during installation):

    pip install [--upgrade] /home/cloud-init-0.7.9.tar.gz

  4. Run the cloud-init -v command. Cloud-Init is installed successfully if the following information is displayed:
    cloud-init 0.7.9
  5. Enable Cloud-Init to automatically start upon system boot.
    • If the OS uses SysVinit to manage automatic start of services, run the following commands:

      chkconfig --add cloud-init-local; chkconfig --add cloud-init; chkconfig --add cloud-config; chkconfig --add cloud-final

      chkconfig cloud-init-local on; chkconfig cloud-init on; chkconfig cloud-config on; chkconfig cloud-final on

      service cloud-init-local status; service cloud-init status; service cloud-config status; service cloud-final status

    • If the OS uses Systemd to manage automatic start of services, run the following commands:

      systemctl enable cloud-init-local.service cloud-init.service cloud-config.service cloud-final.service

      systemctl status cloud-init-local.service cloud-init.service cloud-config.service cloud-final.service

If you install Cloud-Init using the official source code package and pip, pay attention to the following:

  1. Add user syslog to the adm group during the installation. If user syslog exists, add it to the adm group. For some OSs (such as CentOS and SUSE), user syslog may not exist. Run the following commands to create user syslog and add it to the adm group:

    useradd syslog

    groupadd adm

    usermod -g adm syslog

  2. Change the value of distro in system_info in the /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg file based on the OS release version, such as distro: ubuntu, distro: sles, distro: debian, and distro: fedora.

Install Cloud-Init Using the Official GitHub Source Code

You can obtain the Cloud-Init source code from GitHub at https://github.com/canonical/cloud-init/

  1. Run the following commands to download the source code package and copy it to the /tmp/CLOUD-INIT folder:

    wget https://github.com/canonical/cloud-init/archive/refs/tags/0.7.6.zip

    mkdir /tmp/CLOUD-INIT

    cp cloud-init-0.7.6.zip /tmp/CLOUD-INIT

    cd /tmp/CLOUD-INIT

  2. Run the following command to decompress the package:

    unzip cloud-init-0.7.6.zip

  3. Run the following command to enter the cloud-init-0.7.6 folder:

    cd cloud-init-0.7.6

  4. Install Cloud-Init. The commands vary depending on the OS type.
    • For CentOS 6.x or SUSE 11.x, run the following commands:

      python setup.py build

      python setup.py install --init-system sysvinit

    • For CentOS 7.x or SUSE 12.x, run the following commands:

      python setup.py build

      python setup.py install --init-system systemd

    Add user syslog to the adm group during the installation. If user syslog exists, add it to the adm group. For some OSs (such as CentOS and SUSE), user syslog may not exist. Run the following commands to create user syslog and add it to the adm group:

    useradd syslog

    groupadd adm

    usermod -g adm syslog

  5. Enable Cloud-Init to automatically start upon system boot.
    • If the OS uses SysVinit to manage automatic start of services, run the following commands:

      chkconfig --add cloud-init-local; chkconfig --add cloud-init; chkconfig --add cloud-config; chkconfig --add cloud-final

      chkconfig cloud-init-local on; chkconfig cloud-init on; chkconfig cloud-config on; chkconfig cloud-final on

      service cloud-init-local status; service cloud-init status; service cloud-config status; service cloud-final status

    • If the OS uses Systemd to manage automatic start of services, run the following commands:

      systemctl enable cloud-init-local.service cloud-init.service cloud-config.service cloud-final.service

      systemctl status cloud-init-local.service cloud-init.service cloud-config.service cloud-final.service

  6. Run the following commands to check whether Cloud-Init has been installed:

    cloud-init -v

    cloud-init init --local

    Cloud-Init is successfully installed if the following information is displayed:

    cloud-init 0.7.6

Did you find this page helpful?

Failed to submit the feedback. Please try again later.

Which of the following issues have you encountered?







Please complete at least one feedback item.

Content most length 200 character

Content is empty.

OK Cancel