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ODBC开发示例

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更新时间:2020/08/24 GMT+08:00

常用功能示例代码

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// 此示例演示如何通过ODBC方式获取GaussDB(DWS)中的数据。
// DBtest.c (compile with: libodbc.so)   
#include <stdlib.h> 
#include <stdio.h> 
#include <sqlext.h>
#ifdef WIN32
#include <windows.h>
#endif 
SQLHENV       V_OD_Env;        // Handle ODBC environment 
SQLHSTMT      V_OD_hstmt;      // Handle statement 
SQLHDBC       V_OD_hdbc;       // Handle connection     
char          typename[100];
SQLINTEGER    value = 100;
SQLINTEGER    V_OD_erg,V_OD_buffer,V_OD_err,V_OD_id;
SQLLEN        V_StrLen_or_IndPtr;
int main(int argc,char *argv[]) 
{         
      // 1. 申请环境句柄       
      V_OD_erg = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV,SQL_NULL_HANDLE,&V_OD_Env);     
      if ((V_OD_erg != SQL_SUCCESS) && (V_OD_erg != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO))        
      {           
           printf("Error AllocHandle\n");           
           exit(0);        
      } 
      // 2. 设置环境属性(版本信息)         
      SQLSetEnvAttr(V_OD_Env, SQL_ATTR_ODBC_VERSION, (void*)SQL_OV_ODBC3, 0);      
      // 3. 申请连接句柄        
      V_OD_erg = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, V_OD_Env, &V_OD_hdbc);     
      if ((V_OD_erg != SQL_SUCCESS) && (V_OD_erg != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO))      
      {                     
           SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, V_OD_Env);          
           exit(0);       
      }
      // 4. 设置连接属性
      SQLSetConnectAttr(V_OD_hdbc, SQL_ATTR_AUTOCOMMIT, SQL_AUTOCOMMIT_ON, 0);          
      // 5. 连接数据源,这里的“userName”与“password”分别表示连接数据库的用户名和用户密码,请根据实际情况修改。
      // 如果odbc.ini文件中已经配置了用户名密码,那么这里可以留空("");但是不建议这么做,因为一旦odbc.ini权限管理不善,将导致数据库用户密码泄露。    
      V_OD_erg = SQLConnect(V_OD_hdbc, (SQLCHAR*) "gaussdb", SQL_NTS,  
                           (SQLCHAR*) "userName", SQL_NTS,  (SQLCHAR*) "password", SQL_NTS);        
      if ((V_OD_erg != SQL_SUCCESS) && (V_OD_erg != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO))      
      {           
          printf("Error SQLConnect %d\n",V_OD_erg);            
          SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, V_OD_Env);       
          exit(0);        
      }     
      printf("Connected !\n"); 
      // 6. 设置语句属性
      SQLSetStmtAttr(V_OD_hstmt,SQL_ATTR_QUERY_TIMEOUT,(SQLPOINTER *)3,0);
      // 7. 申请语句句柄
      SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, V_OD_hdbc, &V_OD_hstmt);       
      // 8. 直接执行SQL语句。
      SQLExecDirect(V_OD_hstmt,"drop table IF EXISTS customer_t1",SQL_NTS);
      SQLExecDirect(V_OD_hstmt,"CREATE TABLE customer_t1(c_customer_sk INTEGER, c_customer_name VARCHAR(32));",SQL_NTS);
      SQLExecDirect(V_OD_hstmt,"insert into customer_t1 values(25,'li')",SQL_NTS);
      // 9. 准备执行
      SQLPrepare(V_OD_hstmt,"insert into customer_t1 values(?)",SQL_NTS); 
      // 10. 绑定参数
      SQLBindParameter(V_OD_hstmt,1,SQL_PARAM_INPUT,SQL_C_SLONG,SQL_INTEGER,0,0,
                       &value,0,NULL);
      // 11. 执行准备好的语句
      SQLExecute(V_OD_hstmt);
      SQLExecDirect(V_OD_hstmt,"select id from testtable",SQL_NTS);
      // 12. 获取结果集某一列的属性
      SQLColAttribute(V_OD_hstmt,1,SQL_DESC_TYPE_NAME,typename,sizeof(typename),NULL,NULL);                 
      printf("SQLColAtrribute %s\n",typename);
      // 13. 绑定结果集
      SQLBindCol(V_OD_hstmt,1,SQL_C_SLONG, (SQLPOINTER)&V_OD_buffer,150,
                (SQLLEN *)&V_StrLen_or_IndPtr);
      // 14. 通过SQLFetch取结果集中数据
      V_OD_erg=SQLFetch(V_OD_hstmt);
      // 15. 通过SQLGetData获取并返回数据。
      while(V_OD_erg != SQL_NO_DATA)
      {
          SQLGetData(V_OD_hstmt,1,SQL_C_SLONG,(SQLPOINTER)&V_OD_id,0,NULL);
          printf("SQLGetData ----ID = %d\n",V_OD_id);
          V_OD_erg=SQLFetch(V_OD_hstmt);
      };
      printf("Done !\n");
      // 16. 断开数据源连接并释放句柄资源
      SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT,V_OD_hstmt);    
      SQLDisconnect(V_OD_hdbc);         
      SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC,V_OD_hdbc);       
      SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, V_OD_Env);  
      return(0);
 }

批量绑定示例代码

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/**********************************************************************
* 请在数据源中打开UseBatchProtocol,同时指定数据库中参数support_batch_bind
* 为on
* CHECK_ERROR的作用是检查并打印错误信息。
* 此示例将与用户交互式获取DSN、模拟的数据量,忽略的数据量,并将最终数据入库到test_odbc_batch_insert中
***********************************************************************/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sql.h>
#include <sqlext.h>
#include <string.h>

#include "util.c"

void Exec(SQLHDBC hdbc, SQLCHAR* sql)
{
    SQLRETURN retcode;                  // Return status
    SQLHSTMT hstmt = SQL_NULL_HSTMT;    // Statement handle
    SQLCHAR     loginfo[2048];

    // Allocate Statement Handle
    retcode = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hdbc, &hstmt);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT)",
                hstmt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

    // Prepare Statement
    retcode = SQLPrepare(hstmt, (SQLCHAR*) sql, SQL_NTS);
    sprintf((char*)loginfo, "SQLPrepare log: %s", (char*)sql);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, loginfo, hstmt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

    retcode = SQLExecute(hstmt);
    sprintf((char*)loginfo, "SQLExecute stmt log: %s", (char*)sql);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, loginfo, hstmt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

    retcode = SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hstmt);
    sprintf((char*)loginfo, "SQLFreeHandle stmt log: %s", (char*)sql);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, loginfo, hstmt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);
}

int main () 
{
    SQLHENV  henv  = SQL_NULL_HENV;
    SQLHDBC  hdbc  = SQL_NULL_HDBC; 
    int      batchCount = 1000;
    SQLLEN   rowsCount = 0;
    int      ignoreCount = 0;

    SQLRETURN   retcode;
    SQLCHAR     dsn[1024] = {'\0'};
    SQLCHAR     loginfo[2048];

    // 交互获取数据源名称
    getStr("Please input your DSN", (char*)dsn, sizeof(dsn), 'N');
    // 交互获取批量绑定的数据量
    getInt("batchCount", &batchCount, 'N', 1);
    do 
    {
        // 交互获取批量绑定的数据中,不要入库的数据量
        getInt("ignoreCount", &ignoreCount, 'N', 1);
        if (ignoreCount > batchCount)
        {
            printf("ignoreCount(%d) should be less than batchCount(%d)\n", ignoreCount, batchCount);
        }
    }while(ignoreCount > batchCount);

    retcode = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, SQL_NULL_HANDLE, &henv);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV)",
                henv, SQL_HANDLE_ENV);

    // Set ODBC Verion
    retcode = SQLSetEnvAttr(henv, SQL_ATTR_ODBC_VERSION,
                                        (SQLPOINTER*)SQL_OV_ODBC3, 0);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLSetEnvAttr(SQL_ATTR_ODBC_VERSION)",
                henv, SQL_HANDLE_ENV);

    // Allocate Connection
    retcode = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, henv, &hdbc);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC)",
                henv, SQL_HANDLE_DBC);

    // Set Login Timeout
    retcode = SQLSetConnectAttr(hdbc, SQL_LOGIN_TIMEOUT, (SQLPOINTER)5, 0);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLSetConnectAttr(SQL_LOGIN_TIMEOUT)",
                hdbc, SQL_HANDLE_DBC);

    // Set Auto Commit
    retcode = SQLSetConnectAttr(hdbc, SQL_ATTR_AUTOCOMMIT,
                                        (SQLPOINTER)(1), 0);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLSetConnectAttr(SQL_ATTR_AUTOCOMMIT)",
                hdbc, SQL_HANDLE_DBC);

    // Connect to DSN
    sprintf(loginfo, "SQLConnect(DSN:%s)", dsn);
    retcode = SQLConnect(hdbc, (SQLCHAR*) dsn, SQL_NTS,
                               (SQLCHAR*) NULL, 0, NULL, 0);
    CHECK_ERROR(retcode, loginfo, hdbc, SQL_HANDLE_DBC);

    // init table info.
    Exec(hdbc, "drop table if exists test_odbc_batch_insert");
    Exec(hdbc, "create table test_odbc_batch_insert(id int primary key, col varchar2(50))");

    // 下面的代码根据用户输入的数据量,构造出将要入库的数据:
    {
        SQLRETURN retcode; 
        SQLHSTMT hstmtinesrt = SQL_NULL_HSTMT;
        int          i;
        SQLCHAR      *sql = NULL;
        SQLINTEGER   *ids  = NULL;
        SQLCHAR      *cols = NULL;
        SQLLEN       *bufLenIds = NULL;
        SQLLEN       *bufLenCols = NULL;
        SQLUSMALLINT *operptr = NULL;
        SQLUSMALLINT *statusptr = NULL;
        SQLULEN      process = 0;

        // 这里是按列构造,每个字段的内存连续存放在一起。
        ids = (SQLINTEGER*)malloc(sizeof(ids[0]) * batchCount);
        cols = (SQLCHAR*)malloc(sizeof(cols[0]) * batchCount * 50);
        // 这里是每个字段中,每一行数据的内存长度。
        bufLenIds = (SQLLEN*)malloc(sizeof(bufLenIds[0]) * batchCount);
        bufLenCols = (SQLLEN*)malloc(sizeof(bufLenCols[0]) * batchCount);
        // 该行是否需要被处理,SQL_PARAM_IGNORE 或 SQL_PARAM_PROCEED
        operptr = (SQLUSMALLINT*)malloc(sizeof(operptr[0]) * batchCount);
        memset(operptr, 0, sizeof(operptr[0]) * batchCount);
        // 该行的处理结果。
        // 注:由于数据库中处理方式是同一语句隶属同一事务中,所以如果出错,那么待处理数据都将是出错的,并不会部分入库。
        statusptr = (SQLUSMALLINT*)malloc(sizeof(statusptr[0]) * batchCount);
        memset(statusptr, 88, sizeof(statusptr[0]) * batchCount);

        if (NULL == ids || NULL == cols || NULL == bufLenCols || NULL == bufLenIds)
        {
            fprintf(stderr, "FAILED:\tmalloc data memory failed\n");
            goto exit;
        }

        for (int i = 0; i < batchCount; i++)
        {
            ids[i] = i;
            sprintf(cols + 50 * i, "column test value %d", i);
            bufLenIds[i] = sizeof(ids[i]);
            bufLenCols[i] = strlen(cols + 50 * i);
            operptr[i] = (i < ignoreCount) ? SQL_PARAM_IGNORE : SQL_PARAM_PROCEED;
        }

        // Allocate Statement Handle
        retcode = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hdbc, &hstmtinesrt);
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT)",
                    hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        // Prepare Statement
        sql = (SQLCHAR*)"insert into test_odbc_batch_insert values(?, ?)";
        retcode = SQLPrepare(hstmtinesrt, (SQLCHAR*) sql, SQL_NTS);
        sprintf((char*)loginfo, "SQLPrepare log: %s", (char*)sql);
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, loginfo, hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        retcode = SQLSetStmtAttr(hstmtinesrt, SQL_ATTR_PARAMSET_SIZE, (SQLPOINTER)batchCount, sizeof(batchCount));
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLSetStmtAttr", hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        retcode = SQLBindParameter(hstmtinesrt, 1, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_SLONG, SQL_INTEGER, sizeof(ids[0]), 0,&(ids[0]), 0, bufLenIds);
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLBindParameter for id", hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        retcode = SQLBindParameter(hstmtinesrt, 2, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_CHAR, SQL_CHAR, 50, 50, cols, 50, bufLenCols);
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLBindParameter for cols", hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        retcode = SQLSetStmtAttr(hstmtinesrt, SQL_ATTR_PARAMS_PROCESSED_PTR, (SQLPOINTER)&process, sizeof(process));
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLSetStmtAttr for SQL_ATTR_PARAMS_PROCESSED_PTR", hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        retcode = SQLSetStmtAttr(hstmtinesrt, SQL_ATTR_PARAM_STATUS_PTR, (SQLPOINTER)statusptr, sizeof(statusptr[0]) * batchCount);
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLSetStmtAttr for SQL_ATTR_PARAM_STATUS_PTR", hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        retcode = SQLSetStmtAttr(hstmtinesrt, SQL_ATTR_PARAM_OPERATION_PTR, (SQLPOINTER)operptr, sizeof(operptr[0]) * batchCount);
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLSetStmtAttr for SQL_ATTR_PARAM_OPERATION_PTR", hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        retcode = SQLExecute(hstmtinesrt);
        sprintf((char*)loginfo, "SQLExecute stmt log: %s", (char*)sql);
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, loginfo, hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        retcode = SQLRowCount(hstmtinesrt, &rowsCount);
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, "SQLRowCount execution", hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);

        if (rowsCount != (batchCount - ignoreCount))
        {
            sprintf(loginfo, "(batchCount - ignoreCount)(%d) != rowsCount(%d)", (batchCount - ignoreCount), rowsCount);
            CHECK_ERROR(SQL_ERROR, loginfo, NULL, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);
        }
        else
        {
            sprintf(loginfo, "(batchCount - ignoreCount)(%d) == rowsCount(%d)", (batchCount - ignoreCount), rowsCount);
            CHECK_ERROR(SQL_SUCCESS, loginfo, NULL, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);
        }

        if (rowsCount != process)
        {
            sprintf(loginfo, "process(%d) != rowsCount(%d)", process, rowsCount);
            CHECK_ERROR(SQL_ERROR, loginfo, NULL, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);
        }
        else
        {
            sprintf(loginfo, "process(%d) == rowsCount(%d)", process, rowsCount);
            CHECK_ERROR(SQL_SUCCESS, loginfo, NULL, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);
        }

        for (int i = 0; i < batchCount; i++)
        {
            if (i < ignoreCount)
            {
                if (statusptr[i] != SQL_PARAM_UNUSED)
                {
                    sprintf(loginfo, "statusptr[%d](%d) != SQL_PARAM_UNUSED", i, statusptr[i]);
                    CHECK_ERROR(SQL_ERROR, loginfo, NULL, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);
                }
            }
            else if (statusptr[i] != SQL_PARAM_SUCCESS)
            {
                sprintf(loginfo, "statusptr[%d](%d) != SQL_PARAM_SUCCESS", i, statusptr[i]);
                CHECK_ERROR(SQL_ERROR, loginfo, NULL, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);
            }
        }

        retcode = SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hstmtinesrt);
        sprintf((char*)loginfo, "SQLFreeHandle hstmtinesrt");
        CHECK_ERROR(retcode, loginfo, hstmtinesrt, SQL_HANDLE_STMT);
    }


exit:
    printf ("\nComplete.\n");

    // Connection
    if (hdbc != SQL_NULL_HDBC) {
        SQLDisconnect(hdbc);
        SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, hdbc);
    }

    // Environment
    if (henv != SQL_NULL_HENV)
        SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, henv);

    return 0;
}
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